Changing Family Patterns

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  • Created by: miapill
  • Created on: 16-12-13 15:12
Give 5 reasons for the increase in divorce.
Secularisation, Declining Stigma, Rising Expectations, Changes in the Position of Women and Changes in the Law.
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Why would secularisation have an effect on divorce?
People are less influenced by religion in society
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Why would changes in law have an effect on divorce?
Makes divorce cheaper, widens the grounds for divorce, equalises the grounds of divorce for genders.
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Why would a decline in stigma have an effect on divorce?
MITCHELL AND GOODY - As it becomes more common, it 'normalises'. People see it as a misfortune, not as improper.
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Why would rising expectations of marriage have an effect on divorce?
FLETCHER - If love dies, people will be less happy to tolerate it and want to renew their search for Mr or Mrs right.
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Why would changes in the position of women have an effect on divorce?
HOSCHILD - Women feel more valued at work. Less financially dependent on husband from working, so freer to leave relationship.
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What would the New Right think about divorce?
It creates an underclass of welfare dependent lone-parent families with no male role model and a mother who cannot discipline.
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What would Feminists think about divorce?
It allows women to break free from opression.
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What would Postmodernists think about divorce?
It allows individuals a freedom of choice.
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What are the alternatives to divorce?
Desertion, Legal Seperation and 'Empty Shell' marriage.
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What are the changes in marriage?
Fewer people are marrying. There are more re-marriages. People are marrying later. People are less likely to marry in a church.
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Why are less people marrying?
There is declining stigma to marriage alternatives. Women are less economically dependent on men. Less pressure to marry. Fear of divorce.
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Why are there more re-marriages?
Increase in divorce = More divorcees able to re-marry.
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Why are couples marrying later?
Women want to pursue a career first.
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Why are couples less likely to marry in church?
Secularisation.
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What is cohabitation?
An unmarried couple in a sexual relationship living together.
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Why is cohabitation increasing? CRITICISE
Secularisation. Decline in stigma attached to sex outside of marriage. Women more economically dependent.
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What is the relationship between cohabitation and marriage?
CHESTER - It's part of the marriage process. Just a temporary phase on the way like a 'trial marriage'. 75% of cohabiting couples expect to marry. However BEJIN found - It can be permanent as young couples find it more equal.
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How have same-sex relationships changed?
Increased social acceptance. Changes in social policies e.g. equalised age of consent and rights to adopt.
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What do sociologists think of same-sex relationships? CRITICISE
WEEKS - Based on friendship and kinship, these are 'chosen families' and just as stable.
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How have one-person households changed?
Increased to 3 in 10 households - half of these are pensioner age.
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Why have the numbers of one-person households increased? CRITICISE
Increase in divorce. Decline in numbers marrying or marrying later. Not enough partners in age group (pensioners)
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Explain DUNCAN AND PHILLIPS 'living apart together'.
In a significant relationship but not married or cohabiting. May be because they cannot afford it or want to keep their own home.
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How has childbearing changed?
Women are having children later. Women are having less children or even remaining childless. This is because women want to pursue a career first.
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Describe the statistics and reasons for in childbearing.
1 in 4 born outside of marriage. Decline in stigma and increase in cohabitation.
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What are the facts of lone-parent families?
24% of all families. 1 in 4 children are in a lone-parent family. 90% headed by lone mother. Twice as likely to live in poverty.
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Give reasons for these changes in lone-parent families.
Increase in separation and divorce with mother almost always gaining custody.
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Describe the relationship between lone-parent families and the welfare state?
NEW RIGHT: Creates a perverse incentive creating a dependency culture. CRITICS: Benefits not generous enough. Lack of affordable childcare, 60% of parents unemployed.
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What are the changes in stepfamilies?
Children more likely to be from woman's previous relationship - more likely to get custody. ALLAN & CROW - Tensions caused about contact with non-resident parents.
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Describe the ethnic differences in black families.
Highest proportion of lone-parents, mostly female headed.
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Why are there these ethnic differences in black families?
Traced back to slavery, mother sold separately with child. Black male unemployment rates - less able to provide for the family leading to marital breakdown or desertion.
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What do sociologists think about the ethnic differences in black families.
MIRZA: To do with the high value on independence black women have. REYNOLDS: Statistics are misleading, can be stable and supportive.
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Describe the ethnic differences in asian families.
Larger families, sometimes holding three generations but mostly nuclear
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Why are there these ethnic differences in asian families?
BALLARD: Extended family was an important source of support during migration.
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Describe he extended family today.
Continues to play an important role in emotional and financial support even though they don't live together.
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What do sociologists say about the extended family? CRITICISE
WILLMOTT: Continues to exist as a 'dispersed extended family' - Family is geographically separated but still maintain contact through frequent visits and phone calls. CHARLES: Extended family 'all but extinct'.
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Card 2

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Why would secularisation have an effect on divorce?

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People are less influenced by religion in society

Card 3

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Why would changes in law have an effect on divorce?

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Card 4

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Why would a decline in stigma have an effect on divorce?

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Card 5

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Why would rising expectations of marriage have an effect on divorce?

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