Changing Urban Environments

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Is most urbanisation happening today in rich or poor countries?
Poor countries
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What is rural-urban migration?
Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the cities
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Explain one cause of rural-urban migration in poorer countries
There are more jobs in urban areas. Industry is attracted to cities because there's a larger workforce and better infrastructure than in rural areas
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Explain one cause of rural-urban migration in richer countries
In the late 20th century, people left run-down city areas and moved to the country. But people are now being encouraged back by the redevelopment of these urban areas
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What does CBD stand for?
Central Business District
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What's the main land use in the suburbs?
Housing - land here is cheaper and it's still close enough to commute into the CBD easily
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Explain what the rural-urban fringe is
This is the part right at the edge of a city where there are both rural and urban land uses (e.g. factories and farming). There are also fewer, but larger houses
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Give an example of how land use has changed in a part of the city
Inner city tower blocks have been changed and replaced with housing estates on the rural-urban fringe
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Give two problems that cities in rich countries have to deal with
1. Ethnic segregation 2. Run down CBDs
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Describe two solutions to one of these problems
For ethnic segregation: 1. Translators provided at places like hospitals and police stations 2. Information provided about different services e.g. printing leaflets in different languages
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Give an example of a successful attempt to revitalise a CBD
Birmingham
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Name three problems caused by the increasing number of cars on the road in richer countries
1. More air pollution damages health 2. More traffic accidents 3. More traffic jams and congestion
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Explain one solution to reduce the number of cars in cities
By increasing car parking charges, car use is discourages so people are more likely to take public transport
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Give one reason why there is ethnic segregation in many urban areas
People prefer to live close to others with the same background and religion, and also people who speak the same language
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Give one strategy used to support the multicultural mix of urban areas
By making sure there are suitable services for the different cultures (e.g. providing doctors of the same sex as the patient)
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What is a squatter settlement?
Squatter settlements are settlements that are built illegally in and around the city, by people who can't afford proper housing
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Describe what life is like for residents in a typical squatter settlement
There is no access to basic services like electricity, and there may not be police or medical services. Life expectancy is also low, and many people have to work in the informal sector. However, there is strong community spirit!
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What is the informal sector of the economy?
Where jogs aren't taxed or monitored by the government. There is also little pay and long working hours in the informal sector
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Name a project that has improved a squatter settlement
The Favela-Bairro Project
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Give one environmental improvement that has been made
Basic services have been provided, such as clean water, electricity and weekly rubbish collection
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Give one social improvement that has been made
Adult education services have been provided in order to improve adult literacy
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Give one economic improvement that has been made
Training schemes have been introduced to help people learn new skills, get better jobs and therefore earn more income
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How successful has this project been?
It has been very successful - for example, the standard of living and health has greatly improved
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Exaplin one reason why waste disposal is such a problem in the cities of many poorer countries
Money - poorer countries can't afford it, and there are often more urgent problems to spend limited funds of (e.g. healthcare)
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Give three effects of water pollution
1. Water pollution kills fish and other animals, which disrupts food chains 2. Harmful chemicals can build up in the food chain and poison humans 3. Contamination of water supplies with sewage can spread diseases
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How can air pollution be managed?
This can involve setting air quality standards for industries and constantly monitoring levels of pollutants to check they're safe
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What is meant by a sustainable city?
A city that doesn't irreversibly damage the environment or use up resources faster than they can be placed
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Explain how building on brownfield sites can help a city to become more sustainable
Using brownfield sites for new buildings stops green space being used up, so the space will still be available for people in the future
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Name a sustainable city
Curitiba (southern Brazil)
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Name three ways in which this city is trying to be more sustainable
1. Reducing car use 2. Plenty of open spaces and conserved natural environment 3. Good recycling schemes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is rural-urban migration?

Back

Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to the cities

Card 3

Front

Explain one cause of rural-urban migration in poorer countries

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain one cause of rural-urban migration in richer countries

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does CBD stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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