Changing Urban Environments

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  • Created by: EllenMIW
  • Created on: 02-01-16 13:18
The process by which built up areas grow as more people live in towns and cities
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Causes of urbanisation in MEDCs
Pushes=use of machinery, pulls=jobs
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Causes of urbanisation in LEDCs
Pushes=landlessness, drought, famine, war, Pulls=education, piped water, electricity, entertainment
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Issues in MEDC urban areas
Housing, traffic, cultural mix
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Brownfield site
A disused or derelict piece of land in an urban area
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Advantages of brownfield development
Reduces urban sprawl, existing buildings split, improves unsightly areas
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Disadvantages of brownfield development
More expensive to build on (decontamination), more available in north but demand in south east
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Greenfield site
An area of land that has not previously been built on
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Advantages of greenfield development
Cheaper to build on
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Disadvantages of greenfield development
Encourages urban sprawl, encourages commuting, builds on countryside
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Problems caused by traffic
Greenhouse gases, noise pollution, delays, accidents
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Solutions to traffic
Park and ride, charges, one way streets, pedestrianised areas, public transport, ring roads and by-passes
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Reasons for decline of CBD
Traffic, pollution, 1960s design, out-of-town shopping centres, decline in cinema and theatre goers
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Reasons for segregation
Support from other, familiar culture, safety in numbers, specialised facilities, employment factors
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Characteristics of squatter settlements
Large informal sector, cheap materials, outskirts or within large cities, often near rubbish tips
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Issues in squatter settlements
Informal sector, no services (no taxes), hospital and secondary education too expensive
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Solutions to squatter settlement issues
Self-help schemes, Site and Service schemes, Rehabilitation
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Self-help schemes
Given grants, cheap loans and materials, encouraged to work together to improve, legal ownership granted
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Site and Service schemes
Given site, sometimes building, complete project themselves, people trained as plumbers, electricians, etc., given basic services
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Given materials, encouraged to set up community schemes, may be given right of ownership and basic services
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Types of waste
Domestic, electronic, construction
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Solutions to waste disposal issues
Incinerators in São Paulo, solid waste disposal in homes in Shanghai, recycling p,ants extracting dangerous chemicals
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Environmental impacts of urbanisation
Air pollution, water pollution, habitats destroyed, food systems evolve in an unregulated situation
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Management of air and water pollution
Cleaner energy sources, emissions limit, Ganga Action Plan, Huanpu and Suzhou Rivers
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Ganga Action Plan
Water treatment of River Ganges in India
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Huanpu and Suzhou Rivers
World bank loan of $200 million to improve water quality
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Sustainable city
One that is designed with consideration of its environmental impact, inhabited by people dedicated to minimising its required inputs of energy, water and food and waste output of heat, air pollution and water pollution
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Characteristics of sustainable cities
Mixed land use, small residential developments, movement by foot, bike and public transport, wind and solar energy, reduction of waste, natural open space, employment based on education and skills
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Card 2


Causes of urbanisation in MEDCs


Pushes=use of machinery, pulls=jobs

Card 3


Causes of urbanisation in LEDCs


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Card 4


Issues in MEDC urban areas


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Card 5


Brownfield site


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