Changing UK economy

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By how much has primary sector employment in the UK decreased from 1960 to 2010?
from 4% in 1960 to 2% in 2010
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By how much has secondary sector employment in the UK decreased between 1960 and 2010?
from 38% in 1960 to 18% in 2010
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State four main reasons for the decline in secondary sector employment in the UK
deindustrialisation, globalisation, cheaper labour overseas, changes in government policies.
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Why did the coal mining industry decline?
1) UK mines became deeper and more expensive to maintain. 2) competition with cheaper imported coal from Russia and USA. 3) the industry was privatised (changed from government ownership to private ownership) in 1994 as it was making losses.
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Why did the footwear, textiles and clothing industries decline?
1) cheaper textiles were made in LEDCs like Bangladesh and Taiwan. 2) globalisation and cheaper transport costs made global transportation of textiles cheaper.
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By how much has tertiary sector employment increased from 1960 and 2010
from 58% in 1960 to 80% in 2010.
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What is the case study for increase in the finance sector?
The London Docklands
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What are the London Docklands?
A large concentration of new bank headquarters.
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What year did the government deregualte the financial market?
1989
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How did this deregulation of the financial markets affect the finance industry?
Banks and building societies offered a wider range of services, leading to a financial boom in the 1990s.
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What year was Cambridge Science Park set up?
1970
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Name two areas of research that Cambridge Science Park has been exploring in the past 10 years?
Nanotechnology and photonics
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Why has the research (quaternary) sector increased?
The UK has become wealthier, so better heath services and new technology are wanted.
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What is the case study for the retail sector?
Brent Cross Shopping Centre
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Why has there been an increase in the retail sector?
1) a 'retail revolution' started in the 1970s because people are wealthier. 2) globalisation has made products cheaper so people can afford to buy more. 3) society changes have influenced shopping habits (more bulk shopping as women work more.)
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By how much has the average weekly wage increased?
From £220 in 1960 to £450 in 2010
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Why has the average wage increased in the UK?
There are fewer unskilled manual jobs (most of these have moved overseas) and most workers have some qualifications or skills.
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In 1960, women made up 35% of the workfoce, how much (%) of the workforce do women make up nowadays?
49%
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Why has the number of working women increased?
women are now more independant, many marry later on in life, have fewer children and focus more on careers.
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What happened in 2008?
Economic recession
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How did the recession affect teh number of part time/ female workers?
decline because firms had to save money so they greatly reduced their part time labour force
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By how much has part time work increased between 1960 and 2010?
from 5% in 1960 to 25% in 2010
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Why has the number of part time workers increased?
1) cheaper to employ people part time. 2) UK workforce is now more flexible 3) part time work suits people with families 4) for many people, part time work is the only work they can find.
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Is North East England the core or periphery zone?
Periphery
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Is South East England the core or periphery zone?
Core
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True or false? the north east coal and mining industries have suffered from deindustrialisation due to foreign competition?
true, this caused a severe decline in employment
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Why did the south east not suffer from deindustrialisation?
the south east relies on wealthy tertiary and quaternary sector employment (e.g. Cambridge Science park)
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Name some cities in the North East of England
Suderland, Newcastle
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Name some cities in the South East of England
London, Oxford, Reading, Cambridge
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What did the governernement do to attract new industries to the south east?
1) They introduced Enterprise Zones 2) gave businesses reduced taxes 3)fast tracked plans through planning processes 4) spent more on capital projects such as new roads.
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This led to the Nissan Car factory opening in 1986. how many people does it employ?
4000
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What percentage of the population of the North East are unemployed?
11.6%
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What percentage of the population in the South East are unemployed?
6.3%
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The South East is the focus of the UK's transport networks, this encourages businesses to locate there as workers can reach the area easily. Give some examples of these transport networks
key airports like Heathrow and Gatwick. large ship ports like Tilbury Docks (the largest ship port in the UK) and Southampton (the second largest)
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What is the M4 corridor?
It stretches from Heathrow to Bristol and is home to quaternary jobs such as Hewlett packard and Sony (light engineering and electronics). It has been an area of major growth.
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What is the case study for environmental impacts of changing employment?
Sheffield
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What industry was Sheffield once known for?
Steel
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Deindustrialisation caused a loss of how many steel manufacturing jobs between 1971 and 2008?
120, 000
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Sheffield has undergone economic diversification. What does this mean?
Jobs have shifted from manufacturing to retail, property development and business services.
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How have economic changes benefitted Sheffield's water quality?
The River Don was once very polluted, factories have now closed so water quality has improved.
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Give an example fo an area in Sheffield that has been regenerated?
Meadowhall shopping centre was once a steel factory
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Describe another benefit of economic changes in Sheffield.
As steel factories closed, air quality has improved because factory chimneys stopped polluting the air.
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By how much (%) have nitrogen dioxide levels in Sheffield decreased rfom 1980?
50%
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Describe 3 disadvantages of economic changes in Sheffield.
1) 900 hectares of polluted, derelict land were created from the closure of factories. 2) with less work in inner city factories, there has been more pressure to build on greenfield sites. 3) commuter traffic has increased.
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What is a brownfield site?
Areas of land that have been developed before but where buildings such as factories have now been closed and perhaps demolished.
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What is a greenfield site?
Areas of land that have not yet been built on (often countryside areas).
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What is the case study for building on Brownfield sites?
The old rover car factory, West Midlands.
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How much will the redevelopment programme for the former Rover car factory cost?
£1 billion
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How many new shops will there be?
25
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How many new apartments will there be?
40
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How many new jobs will be created?
10, 000
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What are the benefits of building on Brownfield sites?
1) employment. 2) new parks will be created, this improves local environment. 3) may reduce local crime.
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What are the costs of building in Brownfield sites?
1) nearby shop owners will lose a lot of trade. 2) local house prices will rise. 3) increased traffic. 4) land may be contaminated/ polluted. 5) there may be listed buildings protected by the government.
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What is the case study for building on greenfield sites?
Housing in Dudley, west midlands.
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How many new homes will be built?
330
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What are the benefits of building on greenfield sites?
1) attractive and popular place to love. 2) easy to build on; nothing to demolish. 3) construction creates jobs.
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What does NIMBY stand for?
not in my backyard
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What are the costs of building on greenfield sites?
1) makes locals/ NIMBYs/ environmentalists unhappy, this creates conflict. 2) traffic congestion in a peaceful area. 3) requires new infrastructure.
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Name 3 new UK employment sectors
Education/ research sector, green sector, digital sector
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Give some examples of jobs in the education/ research sector
university lecturers, researcers, writers and teachers
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How does internationalisation allow economic growth?
1) research can be undertaken overseas. 2) international students studying in the UK contribut £10 billion to the UK economy.
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What is Europe's target for renewable energy sources that drives the green sector?
to obtain 20% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020
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Why could the green sector be an area of growth?
people are becoming mroe concerned about pollution and water management. and non-renewable resources are running out.
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What is East London Tech City (aka silicon roundabout)
a cluster of 200 tech companies including Amazon and Google
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What has caused the digital sector to grow?
inventions of new laptops and phones
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What is teleworking?
working from home
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In 1980, 100, 000 people worked from home. What is this figure nowadays?
3.7 million
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What is self employment?
working for yourself, setting up your own business
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Why is more flexible working (including teleworking and self employment) likely to continue to increase?
1) companies save money when employees use their homes as workplaces. 2) technology developments make teleworking easier.
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What are the benefits of flexible working?
1) reduces commuting, less pollution. 2) suits certain people, e.g. parents. 3) people have more freedom
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What are the disadvantages of flexible working?
1) being self employed brings with it the stress of having to look for work all the time. 2) could be family tensions if homes are used as workplaces. 3) fewer benefits like paid holidays 4) part time work pays less.
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Card 2

Front

By how much has secondary sector employment in the UK decreased between 1960 and 2010?

Back

from 38% in 1960 to 18% in 2010

Card 3

Front

State four main reasons for the decline in secondary sector employment in the UK

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did the coal mining industry decline?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why did the footwear, textiles and clothing industries decline?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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