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  • Created on: 06-04-14 15:25
How many machine and tractor stations were established?
2500 MTS
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What was the aim of machine and tractor stations?
Support collective farms through maintaining and hiring out machinery
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In order to use machinery from an MTS what percentage of produce had to be handed over by peasants?
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How were MTS stations used to consolidate Stalin's power?
Control the countryside, each had a political department to root out anti-soviet elements, establish party cells in area and ensure each kolkhoz handed over quota of grain
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What was the first priority of the collective farm?
Deliver quotas of grain and other food products to the state
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What did the state do with food products from collective farm?
Paid collective farm very low prices and then sold produce to towns at slightly higher prices
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What could the peasants do with any surplus, that was usually from their private plots?
Sell at local market
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What was the main source of milk, butter and eggs for the urban population?
From the peasant's private plots which they used to make surplus to sell
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Did workers receive a wage on the kolkhoz?
No, instead credited with 'workdays' in return for labour on collective fields
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How would the profit at end of year from a collective farm be divided up at the end of the year?
According to the workdays of each peasant
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What was the issue with the division of profit from collective farms?
Most farms made little profit so most peasants received little money - private plots became crucial to both supplement diet and sell extra produce
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Process by which Russian agriculture was reformed
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How did Russian peasants originally work?
On small farms with limited technology
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What was Stalin's plan?
To merge all small farms into large collective farms to pool labour and resources to operate more efficiently
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Why was collectivisation introduced?
Economic factors, ideological factor (Communism), political factors and the grain procurement crisis of 1927-9
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What was the state to provide to modernise production and improve efficiency?
Tractors and fertilisers
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Economic Factors
Autumn 1926 - record grain harvests but harvests from 1927-9 were poorer
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What was the impact of the poor harvests of 1927-9 with decrease in production?
Agricultural products price forced up with standards of living among urban workers declined
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How did the decrease in agricultural production in 1927-9 affect the government?
Since 1921 had been selling grain surpluses abroad to gain foreign currency needed to provide resources for industrialisation - if no surpluses then there would be no money to build Russian industry
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How did collectivisation hold prospect for economic benefit?
Increased efficiency accompanied by mechanisation. Less people would be required to work on farms - releases manpower for developing industry.
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What could the increased production of foodstuffs hoped for under collectivisation provide?
Sell more overseas to gain resources for industrialisation and also increased standard of living for urban workers
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Up until 1928 had communism done much to change Russian agriculture?
No, peasants used traditional farming methods
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What illustrated the fact that the peasants had a lack of revolutionary spirit?
Produced grain for themselves and not the good of the community
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What did Communists believe that collectivisation was essential for?
Capitalist peasants to embrace socialism
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What motivated Stalin's desire to start collectivisation?
Struggle against Bukharin and the right wing of Party
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Who did the radical nature of collectivisation appeal to?
Left wing
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What was the right wing alternative to collectivisation?
Import grain
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What would grain imports have done?
Slowed pace of industrialisation as less money available
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What influenced Stalin's decision to collectivise?
He knew little about agriculture
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During his adult life Stalin had visited farm land once - when?
In 1928 for less than a month
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What shows how simple Stalin's view of agriculture was?
He believed that it could be changed just by act of will and strong leadership
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What did Stalin assert about peasants who refused co-operation?
Were essentially terrorists and enemies of the people and should be showed no mercy
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What did the Grain Procurement Crisis 1927-9 act as a catalyst for?
End of NEP
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Under NEP how did government get grain?
From peasants on free market
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When poor harvests forced grain prices up, what did kulaks begin to do?
Withhold grain to push price higher
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What did Stalin describe the Kulak's withholding of grain as?
Kulak Grain Strike
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What did Stalin use the 'grain strike' to do?
Revive grain requisitioning
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What did the Grain Strike show Stalin about the importance of peasants?
They could practically hold the government to ransom and slow down industrialisation
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What did the grain strike show?
Ideology of the peasants was capitalist
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What did Stalin use as evidence of NEP's failure and to undermine Bukharin's position?
Grain Procurement Crisis
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How was collectivisation carried out?
Emergency measures, liquidation of kulaks
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What was the response to the Grain Procurement Crisis?
Increase power of government ovre economy
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When did Stalin reintroduce rationing to cities?
In winter of 1928-9 in response to lakc of bread and sugar
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Article 107 of Soviet Criminal Code at end of 1928 (when state resumed grain requisitioning)
Grain hoarding punishable
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How did Stalin reward poor peasants who informed on rich neighbours?
Gave them land that belonged to the kulaks
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What was the impact of emergency measures?
Caused resentment between peasants
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Initially Bukharin persuaded party to abandon policies of emergency measures including grain requisitioning - when were they reintroduced?
When Stalin's power grew
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When did the government start to requisition meat?
Spring 1929
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In the middle of 1929 revised Criminal Code. Article 61 gave the policy power to send kulaks to labour camps for up to two years for
"failure to carry out general state instructions"
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What was the impact of emergency measures on Stalin's control?
Increased it
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What does emergency measures include? (roughly)
Actions to middle of 1929 with Article 61
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When did mass collectivisation start?
In December 1929
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How did Stalin word his instructions regarding the kulaks?
'liquidate the kulaks as a class'
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Why was the liquidation of the kulaks significant?
Dekulakisation was the end of capitalism and independent farming in the countryside, increased speed of collectivisation
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At first, what percentage of Russia's farms did Stalin propose to be collectivised extremely quickly?
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What did the call to liquidate the kulaks lead to?
Immediate collectivisation of all farming
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Who did Stalin appeal to?
Poorest peasants with new collective farms controlling all land, peasants pooled resources and used kulak's resources to share n greater harvest
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Poorest peasants were in the minority- what did collectivisation mean for others?
Loss of independence and significant financial loss
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When majority of peasants rebelled, destroying grain and livestock rather than surrendering, how many horses and how many sheep and goats were destroyed from 1929-33?
18 million horses and 100 million sheep and goast
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What did kulaks do to machinery rather than relinquish it to Communists?
Destroyed it
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What did the process of collectivisation involve?
Twenty five thousanders, dizzy with success, famine
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Why did Stalin introduce a new policy just before forced collectivisation?
Local Communists were unhappy about collectivisation plans and were not willing to implement them
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To prevent unhappy local Communists being an issue, Stalin issued a decree to send 25,000 'socially conscious' industrial worekrs to countryside. How many signed up wanting to revolutionise countryside and build socialism?
27,000 workers
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After a two week course, what were the 25000ers supposed to be used for?
Offer technical help to peasants and show them how to use complex machinery
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What were the 25000ers used to do?
Enforce dekulakisation, find stores of grain and confiscate them.
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What were the 25000ers expected to do?
Round up kulaks and organise exkile, forcing remainign peasants into collective farms
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What happened to the majority of kulaks in the first wave of collectivisation?
Majority of kulaks and families shot or sent in cattle trucks to SIBERIA
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What happened to the Kulaks when they arrived in Siberia?
Those who survived to forced labour camps run by secret police
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What happened to thousands of kulaks?
Died of hunger and disease
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Was Stalin moved by the plight of the kulaks?
No - announced that Moscow "doesn't believe in tears"
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What had resistance to collectivisation lead to?
Slaughter of livestock ,destruction of tracts, burning of crops and high levels of hostility
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What forced Stalin to halt collectivisation in March 1930?
Economic and political reality
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How did Stalin defend his policy in the Pravda article 'Dizzy with Success?
Claimed some local officials were 'overenthusiastic' about implementing - instead of taking the blame he blamed those below him
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In Dizzy with Success why did Stalin say collectivisation was suspended?
As targets had been met
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Though Stalin never admitted problem caused or that so many died/exiled what was Dizzy with Success?
A form of admission that many within the party believed that the carnage had went too far
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When was Dizzy with Success published in Pravda?
March 1930
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In March 1930 what percentage of Russian farms had been collectivised?
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In August 1930 where were many peasants?
Back at their own farms
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By the end of 1930 what percentage of farmers remained in collectives?
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When did the pressure to collectivise resume?
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What did the second wave of collectivisation lead to?
Unprecendented famine
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What was significant about the 1932-4 famine?
Was the result of government policy rather than natural disaster such as poor harvests of 1927-9
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In 1931 government gave hugely unrealistic targets to farmers, what did Stalin say would happen if failed to reach targets?
Would be seen as sabatage and be highly punished
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What happened in the second wave of collectivisation when farmers failed to reach targets?
Stalin ordered grain seizure by Red Army and Secret Police - to meet targets all grain was confiscated
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In the second wave of collectivisation what would happen to peasants caught hiding even one or two ears of corn?
Would be shot
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What were there military checkpoints to prevent?
Food entering the Ukraine.
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What did trains entering the Ukraine have to do?
Keep windows shut to prevent food falling on tracks
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Why was an international aid offer refused?
Stalin claimed there was no famine in Socialist Russia
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What did people fight over?
Horse manure containing some undigested grain
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Authorities made no count of the dead but what is a fair estimated of the number dead?
10 million
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What did economic policy chaos mean?
Some grain rotted in barrels while peasants starved
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What was Holodomor?
The man made famine in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic specifically
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Since 2006 what has Holodomor been recognised as?
recognized by the independent Ukraine and several other countries as a genocide of the Ukrainian people
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According to the decision of Kyiv Appellation Court, what was the final demographic losses due to the famine in the Ukraine?
amounted to 10 million, with 3.9 million famine deaths, and a 6.1 million birth deficit
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What was collectivisation intended to do?
bring Socialism and efficiency to the countryside, failed though did bring some industrialisation
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How many kulak families were sent to Siberia in 1929?
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How many kulak families were sent to Siberia in 1930?
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How many kulak families were sent to Siberia in 1931?
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Some villages had what percentage of peasants exiled?
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How many peasants were exiled due to dekulakisation?
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Was there much incentive for those who worked hard on the collectives?
No as tey had no land of their own and received little reward
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What was the impact of collectivisation?
Decline in productivity
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What was the reality about those who were exiled?
Were often the most enterprising or hardworking
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Was the early phase of mechanisation successful?
No, was ineffective
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How many tonnes less was the harvest of 1933 then the harvest of 1926?
9 million tonnes
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What happened to the number of horses from 1928 to 1932?
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What happened to the number of pigs from 1928 to 1932?
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When did the Central Committee agree to create the national network of MTS?
June 1930
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What meant that the MTS netwrok was not fully established until 1931?
Bad planning
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What prevented many farms from hiring tractors to extract more grain?
Too expensive
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By end of 1932 how many tractors were there in Russia?
Almost 750,000
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By the end of 1932 how many MTS in Russia?
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What percentage of farms were not involved in MTS network by end of 1932?
Half of all farms
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Did extra tractors make up for the loss of millions of horses?
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In 1941 what percentage of farms were collectivised?
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What was the goal of collectivisation?
Provide more grain to export for funds to industrialise as need foreign currency
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Although amount of grain produced fell from 1926 what happened to the amount exported by state?
Still increased
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In 1928 how many tonnes of grain procured by state?
11 million tonnes
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1929 how many tonnes of grain procured by state?
16 million tonnes
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How many tonnes of grain were procured by the state in 1933?
23 million tonnes
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Grain exports rose from 0.03 million tonnes to over 5 million tonnes in which year
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Although there was not famine in the cities what happened to standard of living for industrial workers?
Fell significantly
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What happened to the value of wages from 1928 to 1932?
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What happened to the amount of meat consumed by urban workers from 1928 to 1932?
Fell by 2/3
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What did government blame for poor harvests?
'kulak spirit' - propaganda fed suspicion to urban workers that peasants were not helping build socialism
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What did left wing Communists see Stalin's hard line against peasants as?
Return to heroism of civil war
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Why were party leaders loyal to new policies against kulaks and peasants?
Fear of civil war
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In 1928 what precentage of population were workign class
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In 1919 what percentage were working class
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What happened to some city's urban populations in the 1930s?
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From 1922 to 1940 the number of Russians in cities rose from 22 million to 63 million. What was the impact of this?
Issuse as government reluctant to invest in urban housing
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What is Stalin often remmbeerd for?
Mid 1930s when 10,000s exiled or executed as enemies of the state
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What did Stalin remove through collectivisation?
Removal of influence of traditional village roles (teacher and priests), elimination/removal of 15,000,000 kulaks and removal capitalist classes
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Collectivisation abolished the peasant controlled mir. What was this?
Village commune
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What happened to the number of cattle from 1928-33?
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What was grain production ni 1928
73.3mn tonne
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Grain production in 1934
67.6 million tonnes
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When was there greater use of machinery in countryside?
After mid 1930s
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What were grain supplies seized ued for
Feed towns, support industrialisation and for exports to buy ofireng exchange
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What was the aim of machine and tractor stations?


Support collective farms through maintaining and hiring out machinery

Card 3


In order to use machinery from an MTS what percentage of produce had to be handed over by peasants?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How were MTS stations used to consolidate Stalin's power?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was the first priority of the collective farm?


Preview of the front of card 5
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