Challenges to the Romanovs

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  • Created by: apple87
  • Created on: 08-01-16 20:27
Which three big things were happening during Alexander III reign and the start of Nicholas II reign?
Political repression of groups demanding reform. Rapid industrialisation which was unpopular with ordinary people. 1905 revolution
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When does Nicholas II become Tsar?
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When was the Social Democratic party formed?
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When was the Socialist Revolutionary Party formed?
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When did the Russo- Japanese war begin?
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When was Bloody Sunday?
Jan 1905
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When was the October manifesto?
Oct 1905
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How did Alexander III respond to the assassination of Alexander II?
Was even more repressive- The Okhrana restricted the press and monitered revolutionary activity.
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What three principles did Pobedonostsev believe?
Nationality- Promoted Russification. Autocracy- Alexander III kept up traditional Tsarist autocracy. Orthodoxy- Rights and privilages of the Orthodox church were above those of other beliefs.
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What were land captians?
Aristocrats appointed by the Tsar. They could over rule the zemstva and charge peasants with minor offences.
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What was Russification?
Policy of forcing Russian language, religion and culture into minority groups. The Russian majority had more rights than minorities.
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What is a Mir or Commune?
Russian village organisation run by heads of household
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What is the Zemstvo?
Form of elected local government
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When was the Menshevik Bolshevik split?
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What did the Populists belive?
The leading thinkers were middle class. They looked to the peasants as the future political basis for society. They disliked the autocratic rule and wanted a system of independednt peasant communes.
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What did the Socialist Revolutionary Party believe?
Believed Russia's future lay with the peasantry. Promised all peasants would be given their own land.
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What did the Social Democrat Party believe?
They looked to the radical ideas of Marxism
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Who were the Octoberists?
The group was created after the October manifesto which was seen by liberals as a crucial breakthrough. They became supporters of the Tsar.
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Who were the Kadets?
A more radical liberal group formed after 1905. They saw the Ocotober manifesto as the beginning of reform not the end. They hoped a true parliamentary system wouldbe based on a vote.
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Why did Russia want to modernise?
The economy was based on agriculture, Russia wanted to remain a great power, the population was rapidly growing putting pressure on landholdings.
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What did Nikolai Bunge do? How effective were his policies?
Created the Peasants' Land Bank which enouraged peasants to expand their landholdings. Was ineffective due to being too small.
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What did Ivan Vyshnegradsky do?
Encouraged foreign investment and raised taxes to finance industrialisation. Foreign money paid for a small rail network, growth in heavy industry in Ukraine + oil production in Baku. Domestic industry was protected with high tariffs.
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What were the problems with Vyshnegradsky's polcies?
He exported lots of grain as finance which caused a major famine in 1891.
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What did Sergei Witte do to improve the railways?
Built the Trans-Siberian railway, planned netwrok of railways to link new industrial centres in west Russia, linked Baku oil refinaries to the Black Sea.
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How did Witte encourage foreign investment?
Put the Rouble on the gold standard guaranteeing the currency's value, encouraged Western countries to invest in industry.
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How much did foreign investment increase between 1890 and 1900?
In 1890 it was 200 million Roubles. In 1900 it was 900 million Roubles.
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What were the postitives of Wittes economic policies including economic growth?
Massive increases in coal and iron production, Oild output increased 10 fold, economy grew 8% a year in the 1890's, economy grew by 6% from 1906 to 1914, Siberian railway gave access to natural resources in the Eastern empire.
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What were the drawbacks of Wittes economic policies?
Siberian railway was only partially finished by 1914 and didn't increase migration much, taxes raised which reduced amount spent on consumer goods, huge government debts,agriculture didn't improve, state control of industry harmed middle class growth
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When was Sergie Witte Finance minister?
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What issues were there in the argiculture industry at the beginning of the 1900's?
Most were still paying redemption payments, peasants farmed less land that was lower quality as nobels kept the best, subsistence farming,farming techniques hadn't changed much since the middle ages(old fashioned crop rotation),rich and poor gap grew
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What issues were there in the towns at the beginning of the 1900's?
Very low wages made it difficult to survive, Witte introduced an 11 hour working day but it was largely ignored, safety in factories was lax, overcrowing and insanitary conditions, poor education and health services creating inequality.
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What was the life expectancy for and urban worker?
Under 30
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Why did social unrest grow in the countryside?
Peasants needs were put after the need to industrialise, resented higher taxes and bitter about lack of government support during famines.
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Why did social unrest grow in the towns?
No trade unions or legal political parties to represent their needs, suffered badly under Witte.
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Why didn't opposition parties get very far with their aims?
To small and ineffective, major divisions within parties whch reduced effectiveness, constant harssment and violence from the Okhrana.
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What were the long term causes of the 1905 revolution?
Radit urbanisation cused overcrowing and insanitary conditions, huge pressure on food supplies, high taxes and redemption payments made peasants very poor and desperate for more land, political parties were growing, Tsar was committed to autocracy.
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What were the short term causes of the 1905 revolution?
Humiliating defeat in Russo-Japanes war, Bloody Sunday.
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What happened during Bloody Sunday?
Father Gapon led a peaceful march of 150,000 people to the Winter Palace to present a petition. Soldiers shot and killed hundreds of unarmed protestors.
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What did Gapon petition for?
An end to the war, fair wages and and 8 hour working day, election of a national parliament.
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How many worker went on strike after Bloody Sunday?
0.5 million by the end of the year it was 2.7 million.
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What effect did the strikes have?
Affected the railways so food couldn't be delivered to cities.
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What were the peasant uprisings called?
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What did the peasants do in reaction to Bloody Sunday?
Revolted by illegaly taking land from landowners.
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What was the name of the battleship who's crew mutinied and killed their officers?
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What did the All-Russian Peasants' Union fail to do?
Struggled to organise the peasants on a national level.
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What did the St Petersburg Soviet do?
Organise strikes and demonstrations.
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What happened in the Battle of Tsushmia?
The Russian fleet sailed half way around the world only to be crushed. 25 out of 35 ships were lost.
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What did the October Manifesto promise?
Freedom of speech, religion, and free press, an elected Duma with actual authority, an improvement to the Peasants' land bank and the aboliton of redemption payments.
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What power did the Duma have?
Laws issued by the Tsar had to be approved by the Duma
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What was the reaction to the October Manifesto?
Strikes were called off, spontanious demonstrations in favour of the Tsar, St Petersburg Soviet was dissolved.
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How did the Bolsheviks,Mensheviks and SR's react to the October Manifesto?
Remained hostile towards the Tsar.
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How did the liberals react to the October Manifesto?
They welcomed it and felt it was a milestone towards reform.
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Why did the 1905 revolution fail to overthrow the Tsar?
Loyalty of the armed forces-enabled distrubances to be crushed and leaders were exiled. Lack of unity among revolutionaries- made it easy to crush uprisings. Opposition was split by the October manifesto which allowed the government to regain control
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