CH4 - Aldehydes and Ketones

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What happens when you add Tollen's reagent to an aldehyde and a ketone?
Aldehyde = grey precipitate/silver mirror. Ketone = no effect. The aldehyde is oxidised into a carboxylic acid.
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What happens when you add Fehling's reagent to an aldehyde and a ketone?
Aldehyde = orange/red ppt. Ketone = the solution remains blue. The aldehyde is oxidised to form a carboxylic acid.
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Nucleophilic addition of CN- to aldehydes and ketones - conditions?
NaCN or KCN
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What happens to an aldehyde and/or ketone when they react with 2, 4 DNP and what does this allow?
They become solids (an orange/red ppt is formed). This is filtered off and purified to form a HYDRAZONE. The melting point of this product is then compared with a table of known values to identify the exact aldehyde/ketone.
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Brady's reagent - conditions and mechanism?
Conditions: concentrated sulphuric and nitric acid, 50'C and reflux. Mechanism: nucleophilic addition elimination.
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What does the iodoform test indicate the presence of?
CH3CO group - a yellow ppt forms if this group is present.
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Iodoform test - conditions?
NaOH solution of iodine and potassium iodide.
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State some common compounds that undergo the iodoform test.
Ethanal, ethanol and any alcohols with the OH group in the secondary position.
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Card 2

Front

What happens when you add Fehling's reagent to an aldehyde and a ketone?

Back

Aldehyde = orange/red ppt. Ketone = the solution remains blue. The aldehyde is oxidised to form a carboxylic acid.

Card 3

Front

Nucleophilic addition of CN- to aldehydes and ketones - conditions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to an aldehyde and/or ketone when they react with 2, 4 DNP and what does this allow?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Brady's reagent - conditions and mechanism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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