CH2 revision (Hydrocarbons)

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How does chain length affect melting and boiling temperatures?
The longer the chain the more Van der Walls force attractions that need to be broken. Therefore the longer the chain length the higher the boiling temperature and melting temperatures.
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Define Fractional distillation
The separation of fractions according to boiling temperatures.
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What is Petroleum?
A mixture of hydrocarbons.
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What is Cracking?
In order to make less flammable and therefore less useful hydrocarbons more useful we can split them into smaller molecules. This normally results in a mixture of alkanes and alkenes.
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What is a Radical?
A species with an unpaired electron. It is therefore very reactive.
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What is termination?
When two radials meet and create a species that is not a radical.
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Structure and bonding in allkenes
Alkenes contain a C-C double bond. In ethene the double bond consists of a sigma and a pi bond. The pi bond is formed by the sideways overlap of a p orbital electron on each carbon.
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What is an electrophile?
An electron deficient species that can accept a lone pair of electrons.
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Electrophiles and alkenes
An electrophile will attack the double bond in an alkene. This would be an addition reaction.
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Test for alkenes?
Bromine water will go from brown to colorless in an unsaturated solution.
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What is a Carbocation?
A positively charged carbon containing species.
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What is an elimination reaction?
A reaction where the loss of a small molecule produces a double bond.
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How is a polymer formed?
A polymer is formed when the double bond of an alkene breaks and links to another alkene, these alkenes are known as monomers. A chain will be formed and you will get a polymer.
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What is a monomer?
A small molecule that can be made into a polymer.
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Card 2


Define Fractional distillation


The separation of fractions according to boiling temperatures.

Card 3


What is Petroleum?


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Card 4


What is Cracking?


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Card 5


What is a Radical?


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