CH2 Definitions

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  • Created by: Tasha.L
  • Created on: 12-05-16 14:28
Kinetic Energy
Due to the movement of molecules
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Elastic Potential Energy
Due to the elastic positions of the atoms relative to one another.
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Enthalpy
The total energy content of a system at constant pressure
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Enthalpy Change
The heat change of a reaction at constant pressure
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Standard Conditions
1. All substances in their standard states. 2. A temperature of 298K 3. A pressure of 1 atm
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The principle of conservation of energy
This states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another.
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Standard enthalpy change of formation
This is the enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions.
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Combustion
Burning of materials in oxygen.
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Enthalpy of combustion
The enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is completely burned in oxygen under standard conditions.
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Hess's Law
This states that the enthalpy change for a chemical reaction is the same, whatever route is taken from reactants to products.
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Bond Enthalpy's
The enthalpy change required to break a covalent bond with all species in the gaseous state.
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Activation energy, Ea
The minimum energy required for molecules to react, breaking bonds and forming new ones.
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Homogeneous catalyst
These are in the same phase as the reactants.
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Heterogeneous catalyst
These are in a different phase compared to the reactants.
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Molecular formula
This shows the atoms, and how many of each there are in a molecule of a compound.
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Displayed formula
This shows all the bonds and atoms within a molecule
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Shortened formula
This shows the groups in sufficient detail that the structure is unambiguous.
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Skeletal formula
This shows the carbon/hydrogen backbone of the molecule with any functional group attached.
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Homologous series
A series of chemicals with the same functional group.
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Saturated
A substance in which the atoms are linked by single bonds.
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Hydrocarbon
A substance consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
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Sigma Bond
Covalent bonds formed from direct overlapping between the adjacent atom's outermost orbitals. The single electrons from each atoms orbital combine to form an electron pair, creating the sigma bond.
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Structural isomers
they have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula.
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Chain-branching isomers
Same molecular formula but the carbon chain of the molecule is arranged differently.
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Halogenation
The reaction between an organic compound and a halogen.
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Chain reaction
Where the occurrence of one event leads to a chain of events taking hold.
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron.
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Homolytic fission
This is the even splitting of a covalent bond and each atom gets its electron pair back.
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Haloalkane
An alkane in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced with a halogen.
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Positional isomers
The same molecular formula and chain length, but differ by the position of the functional group.
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Nucleophile
Electron pair donor
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Reflux
The continous evaporation and condensation
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Elimination reaction
One that involves the loss of a small molecule to produce a multiple bond.
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Electrophile
Any species that can accept a lone pair of electrons
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Heterolytic bond fission
When a bond is broken and one of the bonded atoms receives both the bonded electrons.
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E-Z isomerism
This occurs in alkenes only due to the restricted rotation about the double bond due to the pi bond.
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Polymerisation
The joining of a very large number of monomers to make a large polymer.
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Monomer
Small molecule that can be made into a polymer.
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Fermentation
When an aqueous solution of sugar reacts with yeast to produce ethanol.
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Biofuels
Fuels produced from living organisms that have recently died.
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Dehydration
Removal of water to produce an alkene.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Due to the elastic positions of the atoms relative to one another.

Back

Elastic Potential Energy

Card 3

Front

The total energy content of a system at constant pressure

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The heat change of a reaction at constant pressure

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1. All substances in their standard states. 2. A temperature of 298K 3. A pressure of 1 atm

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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