Cereals

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Examples of cereals:
Corn, Rye, Wheat, Barley, Oat, Millet etc.
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What are cereals?
- Edible grasses. - They have been grown and harvested specifically for their grain.
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Cereals (diagram):
- Endosperm (middle) = high in protein and starch. - Germ/Embryo ('seed') = Fat and B vits (soluble). - Bran (outside/shell) = high in fibre (for digestive system, prevents constipation and lowers cholesterol).
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If used in a balanced diet, what will whole grain cereals reduce the risk of?
- Heart disease. - Type 2 diabetes.
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Primary processes of wheat (5):
-Cleaning the wheat -Conditiong the wheat=washed and spun dry -Glistening the wheat=blended with different types of wheat, grades and moistures -Grinding the wheat=between 2 metal rollers, turning the wheat into flour - Streaming=processing the flour
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Secondary processes of wheat:
Cakes, waffles, pizza dough, sauces, crumpets, cereal bars, biscuits, breakfast cereals, pancakes, muffins, doughnuts, ice cream cones, noodles, crisp breads, pasta, bread etc.
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Types of wheat flour (6)
- Wholemeal, organic, stoneground, granary, white, brown
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Brown flour:
- Some bran and germ have been removed. - usually contains 85% of the original grain.
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Some types of pasta and dishes they are used in:
- Penne = tomato and basil pasta. - Orzo = lamb, mint and feta. - Tagliatelle = carbonara. - Spaghetti = spag bowl. - Ravioli = butternut squash ravioli. - Lasagna sheets = lasagna. - Linguine = prawn linguine.
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REMEMBER
Cleaning, Conditioning, Glistening, Grinding, Streaming.
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Wholemeal flour:
- NSP. - Good source of dietary fibre. - 100% extraction rate. - Nothing is added or taken away so its made up of the whole wheat grain.
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What is the yeasts job in bread making?
- To make the bread rise.
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Organic flour:
- Grown to organic standards. - Growers and millers must be registered. - Subject to regular inspections.
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What 4 things do you need to active the yeast?
- Moisture. - Time. - Warmth. - Food (flour).
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Stoneground flour:
- Wholemeal flour ground between 2 stones.
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What liquid do we add to make bread dough and what 3 things does it do?
- Water. 1) Binds. 2) Adds moisture and warmth for the yeast. 3) Helps form gluten.
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Granary flour:
- Malted wheat (thats been toasted and flaked) added to brown or wholemeal flour.
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What flour is best for bread making?
- Strong flour because its high in gluten (which is a protein).
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White flour:
- Usually contains around 70-75% of the endosperm. - Most of the bran and wheat germ has been removed when milling.
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What does proving bread dough do?
- Activates the yeast (providing time and warmth) which breaks down the flour.
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REMEMBER
Cleaning, Conditioning, Glistening, Grinding, Streaming.
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How does baking turn dough into good quality bread?
- Dextrinization = dry heat on starch to coagulate.
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Whats unleavened bread?
- no rising agent, just flour and water (fat and herbs).
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What is leavened bread?
- Flour, water, salt and yeast. - Honeycomb structure, solid 'foam'.
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What are starch molecules?
- Thousands of glucose molecules joined together in a chain.
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At what temperature do starch granules start to absorb water and what does this do ?
- Approx. 60 degrees C. - This thickens the sauce as the starch molecules swell up and have less room to move.
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What happens to starch molecules at 80 degrees c?
- They start to burst and release starch molecules.
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What happens as the sauce cools down?
- The starch molecules start to form chains and trap the water molecules thickening the sauce.
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Storing cereal products:
- In an air-tight container. - Cool, dry and well-ventilated cupboard.
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What happens if cereals are stored incorrectly?
- If humid = becomes moody, lose flavour, pick up flavours form other ingredients. - Can become infested with beetles or weevils.
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Secondary processes of rice:
- Rice milk, rice vinegar, rice cakes, rice wine, rice tea, rice noodles.
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What 2 food poisonings can you get from rice?
- Salmonella (pathogenic bacteria normally found in raw eggs/chicken), however, not a risk if red lion mark. - Bacillus cereus (pathogenic bacteria that produces toxins), associated with poor hygiene in cooked rice.
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Nutrition value of white rice:
- 90% carbs. - 8% protein. - 2% fat. - Good source of iron and B vits. - Low in fibre.
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Nutritional value of brown rice:
- 85% carbs. - 8% protein. - 7% fat. - More fibre than white rice.
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Examples of short grain rice:
- Arborio rice (risotto). - Pudding rice (rice pudding). - Sushi rice (sushi).
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Examples of long grain rice:
- Basmati rice (indian cuisine). - Wild rice (nutty flavour). - Jasmine rice (sticky texture). - White long grain. - Brown long grain.
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REMEMBER
Cleaning, Conditioning, Glistening, Grinding, Streaming.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are cereals?

Back

- Edible grasses. - They have been grown and harvested specifically for their grain.

Card 3

Front

Cereals (diagram):

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

If used in a balanced diet, what will whole grain cereals reduce the risk of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Primary processes of wheat (5):

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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