cellular control

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  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 05-01-15 16:56
what is the full name for DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
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how many genes are in human genome?
250
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what protein is DNA associated to?
histone proteins
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what is the product after DNA repplication of a chromosome?
two sister chromatids conected by centromere
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how many bases code for one amino acid and what is this called?
triplet code (3 bases code for one amono acid)
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in transcription how are ajoining mRNA bases conected
two extra phosphates are released giving energy allowing for bonds
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what is the structure of transcription RNA?
one end has anticodon and one end as 3 exposed bases witch bind to specific amino acids
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what is unique about the last codon on mRNA?
it does not have a complimentry tRNA molecule so it codes for the end of polypeptide
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what is the first codon on mRNA always?
AUG
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when do DNA mutations have no effect?
if new tripplet codes for same amino acid, if new amino acid has no efect on function of polypeptide, if mutation ocurs in non coding section of DNA
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what diseases can be caused by DNA mutations?
cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Huntington disease, tumors
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what specific mutation causes a tumar?
a point mutation were by proto-oncogenes are changed into oncogenes witch is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer as it can not be switched off so there is unregulated cell devision
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what are the effects of Huntington's disease?
causes dementia and loss of motor control
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what specific mutation causes a Huntington's disease?
too many repetitions of CAG in DNA alters Huntington protein
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what specific mutation causes a sickle cell anemia?
point mutation on tripplet wich codes for beta polypeptide chains in haemoglobin. and so valine replaces glatanic acid at possition 6
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what effect does the mutation of sickle cell anemia have?
haemoglobin looses globular hape and RBC'sbecome deformed and inflexivle making it difficult to pass through capilleries, so they reduce blood flow and organs dont get enogh oxygen
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what are the RBC's of someone with hetrozygous genes for cycle cell anemia like?
RBC's are not sickled and appear notmal however phenotype of RBC is still effected as it is codominant
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what does DMD stand for
duchenne Muscular dystrophy
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what are the effects of DMD?
week muscles trunched/no dystrophin, early death of boyys
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what are the effects of cystic fibrosis?
some of the ion channels in gut, airways and reproductive tract are the worong shape and so ion ballance and osmosis is effected, cillia ant hydrated ansd mucus accumulates causing bacteria infection
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what happens when lactose is not present for lac opporon?
reppressor protein binds to operator preving RNA polymerase to bind to promotor and there for stopping the transcription of structural genes and so beta- galactoside and lactose permiase is not made
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what happens when lactose is present for lac opporon?
lactose binds with represor protein changing the shape of its active site so it is no longer complimentry to the opperator and so RNA polymerase can bid with promotor and enzymes for lactose can be made
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what does lactose permiase do?
helps take lactose into cells
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what does beta-galactosidase do?
converts lactose into glucose and galactose
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the order of genes on lac operon
regulatory gene (I), promotor (P), opporator (O), structural genes (z and Y)
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how many base pairs do homeobox genes have?
180
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how is apoptosis initiated?
cytocromes, hormones or nitric acidbinds to receptors on cells, causing the release of proteins wich bind to apoptosis inhibitor proteins
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what are the stages of apoptosis?
cytoskeleton is broken down by enzymes, becomes dense. plasma membrane breaks into plebs. chromatin condenses and nuclear envelope breaks. DNA breaks into fragments. blebs break up further to vessicals wich is ingested by phaygocytosis
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what is the importance of apoptosis?
limb development (eg seperates fingers), prevent tumers,
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for a child aged 8-14 how often does apoptosis ocur in a day?
20-30 billion times
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for an adult how often does apoptosis ocur in a day?
50-70 million times
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what are the stages of meiosis?
prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, tellaphase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II anaphase II telaphase II
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what happens during prophase I?
chromatin condenses (supercoils), chromosomes pair up with homologus pairs (bivalent), non sister chromatids cross over and alleles are exchanged, nuclear envelope disintegrates and spindles form
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what happens at metaphase I?
bivalents line up at equator randomly, fibers attach to centromeres
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what happens in Anaphase I?
homologous chromosomes pulled appart a spindle fibers shorten and chiasmas seperate
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what happens in telephase I?
two nuclear envelopes may form and cell devides by cytokinesis,
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what happens in Prophase II?
chromtin condenses, spindles form, nuclear envelope breaks down
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what happens in Metaphase II?
chromosomes allighn at the equator, spindles attach to centromeres
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what happens in Anaphase II?
centromeres devide and chromosomes split
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what happens in Telephase II?
new nuclear envelopes form and the cells are devided by cytokinesis
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how and were is genetic variation increased?
crossin over (may swich or make new combination of allels), reasortment of chromosomes at equater during metaphase I, reasortment of chromatids in metaphase II, Fertilisation (300 million different sperm), Mutation
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what is the likeness of linked alleles being separated?
unlikely unless chiamata is located between (further appart = more likely)
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wat is significant about the chi squared figure?
the larger it is the more certain of significance
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what is the likely cause for discontinuous variation?
when dominant allele produces phenotype and its absense produces another
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what happens if more than one gene is involved in phenotype of discontinuous variation?
happens in epistatic way
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do different alleles have a bigger effect on discontinuous or continuous variation?
discontinuous
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what are the formular for hardy-weinberg princible
P+Q = 1, P^2+Q^2+Q^2=1
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how many genes are in human genome?

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Card 3

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what protein is DNA associated to?

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Card 4

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what is the product after DNA repplication of a chromosome?

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Card 5

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how many bases code for one amino acid and what is this called?

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