Cellular Organelles

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  • Created by: yott33
  • Created on: 29-03-16 14:36
What is the function of the nucleus?
It contains the cell's DNA, which provides the template for making RNA. Therefore, the nucleus indirectly controls all the activities of the cell.
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Describe the nucleus' structure.
It has a nuclear membrane; has a double membrane. There are nuclear pores: protein complexes w/channel through centre. Contains nucleolus which makes ribosomes.
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What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
The cell's transport system. The membranes form channels through the cytoplasm and join with the outer nuclear membrane to form a continuous membrane.
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Explain RER
Has ribosomes embedded in membrane which make proteins that aid transport and secretion.
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Explain SER
No ribosomes. Makes lipids, inc. phospholipids. Contain enzymes known to detoxify lipid-soluble drugs and some harmful products of metabolism.
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Explain the Golgi apparatus
Series of membranous flattened sacs known as cisternae. Function is to modify proteins and lipids delivered to it from the RER and prepare them for secretion then deliver them to the cell membrane. Also make lysosomes.
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Explain Ribosomes
Found free in the cytoplasm and attached to ER. Present in large numbers. Consist of rRNA and protein. Two components: large and small subunits.
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Explain Mitochondria
Membrane-bound organelles that carry out aerobic respiration. Double membrane. Inner membrane folded into series of cristae. Contain own DNA and possess 70S ribosomes.
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Explain Chloroplasts
Membrane-bound organelles found in plant cells. Function: to absorb light energy for photosynthesis. Double outer membrane and complex arrangement of internal membranes forming thylakoids that are grouped into grana joined by lamellae.
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Explain Lysosomes
Digest cellular material. Contain various enzymes capable of breaking down proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Membrane separates enzymes from rest of cytoplasm.
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Explain Plasma membrane
Acts as barrier to cell, controlling what goes in and out.
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Explain centriols and microtubules
Centrioles are constructed of microtubules arranged in nine triplets forming a cylinder.
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Explain Flagella and Cilia
Composed of microtubules. Found on cell surfaces. Propel cell along or move liquids across cell surface. Consist of ring of nine pairs of microtubules surrounding two central microtubules.
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Explain the Cell Wall
Extracellular layer that supports the cell and prevents it from bursting.
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Describe the cytoskeleton process
Nucleolus manufactures ribosmes. Ribsomes make proteins. RER processes proteins and send to Golgi body. Golgi processes proteins and sends to plasma membrane. Vesicles fuse w/membrane to secrete product.
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What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton is made of a series of protien threads: microtubules and microfilaments. Cellular movement by cilia and flagella. Intracellular movement. Strengthening and support.
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Card 2


Describe the nucleus' structure.


It has a nuclear membrane; has a double membrane. There are nuclear pores: protein complexes w/channel through centre. Contains nucleolus which makes ribosomes.

Card 3


What is the endoplasmic reticulum?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Explain RER


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Explain SER


Preview of the front of card 5
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