Cells and Organelles-Diversity of Microorganisms

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  • Created by: jessica
  • Created on: 11-02-13 07:36
What are the three types of bacterial cell wall?
Acidic, Gram +ve and Gram -ve
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What does gram staining do?
Gram staining reaction separates bacteria into Gram +ve and -ve types.
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What is the structure of a Gram +ve cell wall?
40-90% peptidoglycan by weight.Creates a laminate type structure, is a homogenous structure.
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What are teichoic acids like?
The r group varies and their function is not clear, they have a negative charge. Thought maybe they have a role in regulating the immune response or have a role in adhesion.
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What is the structure of a Gram -ve cell wall?
They have two membranes. The peptidoglycan layer is thinner, only 5-10% by mass and is overlaid by a lipid layer similar to the plasma membrane.
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Name some prokaryotic cell structures.
Coccus, bacillus, curved rod, filamentous, endospores (like skittles),
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How are bacteria named?
Referred to by their genus then the species, written in italics. The name gives clues to the shape and its habitat or disease it causes.
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What are E.Coli like?
Have 3 flagella and fimbriae.Fimbriae are hair like projections from the cell wall and are used as sensors.
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What is a nosocomial infection?
One that requires hospital admission.
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What are heterocysts?
Involved in nitrogen fixation from the air for photosynthetic organisms.
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What do endospores do?
They create an impermeable barrier around the nucleoid, protecting the DNA, then when the soil becomes highly dehydrated the vegetative part will fall off and then leave the spore. The spore when rehydrated can then grow again.
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Where are endospores found?
Found in bacteria that live in the soil. Endospores are found in bacteria that are likely to be in environments that get dehydrated.
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Give an example of a bacteria that uses endospores
Anthrax is an example of a bacteria that uses endospores.
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What are acidophiles?
Bacteria that can grow at a pH 3 or below, maintain a net outflow of protons to maintain internal pH.
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Where are acidophiles found?
In mine spoil heaps, contribute to acid mine drainage. Leaches heavy metals from the soils so can be used to leach metals out from low grade ores. This is more economic than smelting or wasting the low grade ores.
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What are alkophiles?
Bacteria that can grow at a pH range of 8-9 and above.
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Where are alkophiles found?
Common in salt soda lakes, must maintain a net inflow of protons to maintain internal pH.
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What is the internal pH of acido and alkophiles?
The internal pH of the acidophiles and alkophiles must remain at a neutral pH.
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What are aeorbes?
Bacteria that depend on oxygen molecules to survive. These types of prokaryotes are found in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.
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What are facultative aerobes?
use oxygen molecules to survive, but if there is no oxygen they ferment sugars.
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What are anaerobes?
don’t use oxygen molecules. In fact they are killed by oxygen.
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What do facultative anaerobes need?
Sugar to ferment in order to survive.
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What is aeroduric bacteria?
can tolerate oxygen but don’t use it due to the SOD enzyme, which destroys the toxic superoxide radical turning it to Hydrogen peroxide and oxygen.
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What are psychrophiles?
Cold loving prokaryotes, these grow well in freezing temperatures.
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Where are psychrophiles found?
Found in artic habitats and oceans.Have membranes with high levels of unsaturated fatty acids.
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What are psychotrophs?
Cant grow above 35 degrees, normally found in soil and cause food spoilage.
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What are mesophiles?
The majority of bacteria form in this category. Grow at 20-40 degrees.
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What are thermophiles?
Optimum 55-65 degrees for survival.Have very heat stable nucleic acids and enzymes.Have more saturated fats in the membrane.
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What are hyperthermophiles?
These can grow at temperatures above 90 degrees.
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What are halophiles?
Live in areas with high salt concentrations, colonizing in salt lakes.Cell wall becomes damaged in low salt concentrations.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does gram staining do?

Back

Gram staining reaction separates bacteria into Gram +ve and -ve types.

Card 3

Front

What is the structure of a Gram +ve cell wall?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are teichoic acids like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the structure of a Gram -ve cell wall?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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