Cells and movement in and out if them

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What is the equation for magnification?
Size of image / size of object
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What is the differenace between magnification and resolution?
Magnification is how many times bigger the image is than the actual specimen, where as resolution is the minimum distance apart that two objects can be in order for them to apear as separate items.
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Explain the process of Cell fractionation.
This is the process where cells are broken up and the differant organelles are separated out. This is done with a cold isotonic buffer solution, Homogenation and Ultracentrifugation.
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Why use a cold isotonic buffer solution.
The cold stops any unwanted enzyme activity. Isotonic stops the cell from burting or shrinking due to osmotic gain or loss of water and buffer to maintain the pH levels.
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Descirbe Homogenation.
This is when the cells get broken up by a homogeniser so the organelles are released form thier membranes.
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Describe ultracentrigugation.
This is when the Homogenate is spun in a ultracentrifuge. This makes the heavey organelles sink and form a sediment in the bottom of the tube. The supernatant is removed and the nuclie are then separated. This happens again with the supernatant.
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What are the limitations of a light microscope?
The wavelegth is large so there is poor resolution.
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What are the benifits of using an electron micrscope?
Small wavelegth so better resolution and the electrons are negitively chanrged so the beam can be focused using electronmagnets.
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What are the two different type of electron microscope?
TEM (Transmitions) and SEM (Scanning)
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What are the benifts of using the TEM?
The electron gun is absorbed by some parts of the specimens and others don't thus creating a picture that you can take called a Photomicrograph.
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What are the limitations of using an TEM?
They only work in a valcume so the specimen has to be dead. The specimane has to be extermely thin and the image my have artifacts depending on how well it was prepared.
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What are the benifits of using a SEM?
The SEM can look at thicker secimens as it sends an electron beam down towards the specimen that then resonates so it passes though the specimen multiple time. This build up a 3D image of the specimen.
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What are the limitations of the SEM?
Has lower resolution, has to be a dead sample, and it may contain artifacts.
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What is the untrastructure of a ncleus?
Nulear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleoplasm, Chromatin and Nuceolus.
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What is the function of the nucleus?
To be the main centre for mRNA production and ribosomal RNA as well as ribosmomes. And to hold the genetic material.
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What does a nucleus look like on a microscope?
.
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What is the fuction of the mitochondrion?
To carry out the process of respiration and to creat ATP
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What is the ultrastructure of the mitochondrion?
It has a double membrane with the inner membrane floded to form a Cristae, which increase the surface area. Then there is the matrix which contains proteins, lipids and DNA.
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What does a mitorchondrion look like?
.
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What is the ultrastructure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
It is an organelle that surounds the nucleus and conatins many ribosomes on it's surface. It is tubular and curved in its apearance.
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What does the roung ER look like?
.
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What is the function of the RER?
To increase the surface area and to alow for a quicker rate of protein and glycoprotein synthesis. As well as being a pathway for transporting materials though the cell.
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What is the function on the SER?
Synthesis, storage and transprot of lipids and carbohydrates.
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What is the ultrastructure on SER?
It is a curves tubular structure that is lacking ribosomes on its surface.
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What does SER look like?
.
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What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
To form glycoproteins, form lysosomes, transport, store and modify lipids and to secreat enzymes and carohydrates.
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What is the unltra structure of the golgi apparatus?
Its a atacked membrane that forms cisternae. It's membran form vesicels by folding and separating form the main structure.
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What is the appearance of the golg apparatus?
.
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What is the appearance of a lysosome?
.
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What is the unltrastructure of a lysosome?
It is a small vesical that carries enzymes.
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What is the function of a lysosome?
It brakes down material in the cell and out side ( Exocytosis) the cell or it can brake down the whoel cell which is called autocytosis.
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What is the apperance of a Ribosome?
.
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What is the function of a ribosome?
Protein synthesis.
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What is the ulterstructure is a ribosome.
There are two subnitis that process RNA and proteins between them.
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What are the two different types of Ribosomes?
70s type and 80S type
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What is the differacne between 70s type and 80S type ribosomes?
70s type is found in Prokaryotic cells where as 80S type is found in eukaryotic cells.
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What is the appearance of microvilli
.
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What is the unltrastructure of microvilli?
Fingure-like projections from the epithiliel cells.
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What is the function of microvilli?
To increase surface area.
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What makes up triglycerole?
A glycerol melecule and three fatty acids.
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What does a triglycerole molecule look like?
.
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What reations causes the bond between triglycerides?
Condenstation reaction
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What are the roles of lipids?
Energy source, Waterproofing, Insultation, protection.
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What is the differacen between saturated and non-saturated Triglycerol?
Saturated is when there are no double bonds on the carbon. If there are then it is satrurated.
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What is the ultrastucture of a phospholipid?
One of the fatty acids on the triglycerol molecule is replaced with a phosphate molecule.
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What is the appearance of a phospholipid?
.
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Define: hydrophillic.
Water loving
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Define: Hydrophobic
Water hating
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What is the test for lipids?
The emulsions test
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Describe the emulsions test.
Ethanole is added to the sample and shaken. Water is then added and shaken. If a cloudy white precipitate forms then lipids are present.
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What is the difference in a Monolayer and a Bilayered sheet.
When the phospholipids are introduced to the waters surface the tails stick up and they spread out forming a monolayer. When submerged in water they join together and put the hydorphobic tails in the middle and force all the water out forming a bilay
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What is the Fulid Mosaic model?
It is a modle of our cell surface membrane. It is fulid becasue the phospholipid molecuses can move in realtion to each other and its a mosaic as protins are imbeaded all the way through.
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What is part of the fulid-mosaic model?
Phospholipids are arranged so they are compact and form a bilayer. With in the compact arrangement there are proteins and carbohydrates.
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What are the different ways the protiens can be embeded in the phospholipid bilayer?
Extrinsic and Intrinsic protiens
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What is the differance between Extrinsic and Intrinsic protiens
Extrinsic proteins are partially embeded in the layer and Intrinsic protiens are embeded all the way through the bilayer.
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What is the fuction of the Extrinsic proteins.
They give mechanical support or they work in conjunction with glycolipids to act as receports for hormones and other substances.
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What is the fuction of the Intrinsic proteins.
They act as carriers to carry water soluable substance across the membrane or channels that transport ions by active transport.
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How do carbohydrates work on the cell surface membrane?
They conbine with lipids to form glycolipids that act as receptors.
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What is the role of microvilli on the Cell-surface membrane?
To increase the surface area.
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Define Diffusion.
A passive movement of substances down a concentration gradient. (high-low)
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What affects the rate of diffusion?
Surface area, Differance in concentration and the thickness of the exchange surface.
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How does thickness of exchange surface effect the rate of diffusion?
The thinner the diffusion path the quicker the rate of diffusion as the substances dont have to moveacross mulitple membranes.
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How does concentration gradient effect the rate of diffusion?
If there is a bigger differance in concentrations then thre is a faster rate of diffusion to balance out the concentrations.
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How does Surfac area effect the rate of diffusion?
The larger the area the more space there is for more substances to diffuse so there is an increased rate of diffusion.
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What is the equation to work out the rate of diffusion?
Surface area x Differance in concetration / length of diffusion path.
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What is Facilitated diffusion?
Passice process of kenetic energy moving substances across membranes though intrinsic proteins.
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Explain the process of Facilitaed diffusion.
Water soulable moelcules travel though channel proteins that only open in the presence of theat specific ion. Where as carrier proteins have the wanted molecule bind to them, which changes their shape to invert so it is released on the inside of cell
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What is active transport?
The movement of molecules or ions into or out of a cell from a region of lower concentraion to an region of higher concentration using energy and carrier melecules.
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Decribe the process of active transport.
A molecule binds with the carrier protein (outside) inside the cells ATP (energy) bind to the protein. This releases ADP and a phosphate molecule, which changes the shape of the protein. Thus interting and releasing the molecule. Thus stimulating ATP
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What is the role of diffusion in carbohydrate digestion?
Glucose is diffuses into the epithelial cells by the villi. This is then diffused into the blood stream that carries the glucose way. Thus maintaining a concentration gradient.
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What is the role of active transport in carbohydrate digestion?
Soduim is actively transported out of the epithelial cells into the lumen via the sodium-patasium pump. This cause a hi conc in lumen. Glucose pairs with sodium and co-transported by diffusion into cell. Glucose then passes into bloo by Facilitated D
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What is the solduim patasium pump?
When soduium is actively trasported out of the the cell and as a reasult patasium is actively transported into the cell.
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What type of cell is cholera?
Prokaryotic cell (Before nucleus)
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What does the structure of a prokaryoctic organism include?
Cell wall, Cell-surface membrane, Capsule, Circular DNA, Plasmid and flagella.
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Draw the structure of a prokaryoctic organism .
.
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How does cholera creat its symptoms?
The toxins increase the secrtions of chloride ions into the lumen of the small intestines. This results in water moving out of the epithilial cells and blood stream by osmosis casueing diarrhoea and dehydration.
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How does one treat the symptoms of cholera?
The use of the oral rehydration solution. ORS
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Explain how the oral rehydration solution works.
A solution of sodium, patasium, water and glucose is drunk. The sodium pairs with the glucose and is co-transported by the carrier protein. This lowers the water potential in the epithelial cells causeing water to flow back into the cells by osmosis.
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Card 2

Front

What is the differenace between magnification and resolution?

Back

Magnification is how many times bigger the image is than the actual specimen, where as resolution is the minimum distance apart that two objects can be in order for them to apear as separate items.

Card 3

Front

Explain the process of Cell fractionation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why use a cold isotonic buffer solution.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Descirbe Homogenation.

Back

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