Cells

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  • Created by: Laura
  • Created on: 22-03-14 18:52
Magnification
The degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself
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Resolution
The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between 2 objects close together.
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Staining
Any process that helps to distinguish different features, using coloured dyes in light microscopy and metal particles in electron microscopy
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Cytoskeleton
The network of protein fibres found within cells that gives structure and shape to a cell. It also moves organelles around inside cells
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Organelle
A particular structure of a cell that has a specialised function. Some are membrane bound, others are not.
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Nucleus
Organelle made from 2 membranes separated by fluid. Houses all the genetic material. It is surrounded by a nuclear envelope, has nuclear pores which can let large molecules through. The Nucleolus is inside the nucleus, which makes RNA and ribsosomes.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
A series of flattened membrane bound sacs called CISTERNAE. Rough ER have ribosomes, and transport proteins made on the ribosomes - some are secreted, some are put on the cell surface membrane. Smooth ER is involved in making lipids
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Golgi apparatus
A stack of flattened membrane bound sacs, and it receives proteins from the Ribosomes and modifies them. It packages the modified proteins into vesicles - sent to either cell surface or are secreted
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Mitochondria
Spherical with 2 membranes separated by fluid space. Inner = folded to form cristae. Central part = the matrix. Where ATP is made
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Chloroplasts
Have 2 membranes separated by fluid. Inner membrane = continuous with network of Thylakoids. Site of Photosynthesis in plants
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Lysosomes
Spherical sacs with 1 membrane. Contain digestive enzymes to break down materials WBC lysosomes break down invading microorganisms and acrosome in head of sperm penetrates the egg.
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Ribosomes
Small tubes of Protein Fibres, there is a pair next to the nucleus in animal cells and in cells of protocists. They form the spindle, which move chromosomes in nuclear division
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Eukaryotic cell
Cell with a true nucleus
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Prokaryotic cell
Cell without a nucleus
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Phospholipid Bilayer
The basic structural compound of plasma membranes, consisting of 2 layers of phospholipid molecules and has proteins in the layer
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Fluid mosaic model
The model of Cell membrane structure. Lipids give it fluidity and the proteins give it a mosaic appearance.
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Cell Signalling
Cells communicate using signals, many molecules act as signals and others signal from one cell to others. Cytokines = cell signals example.
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Diffusion
The net movement of molecules from and area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down the concentration gradient
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Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion using channel or carrier proteins to allow substances to pass through the membranes.
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Active transport
The movement of molecules or ions across a membrane, using ATP to drive Carrier proteins within the membrane.
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Endocytosis
Moving large quantities of materials into a cell - involved in Bulk transport
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Exocytosis
Moving large quantities of materials out of a cell - involved in Bulk transport
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Phago
Solid material
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Pino
Liquid material
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Osmosis
The net movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential
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Solute
A solid that dissolves in a liquid
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Solvent
A liquid that dissolves a solid
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Solution
A liquid containing dissolved solutes
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The cell cycle
The events that take place as one parent cell divides to make 2 daughter cells which are genetically identical
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histones
Proteins that has chromosomes wrapped around them
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Chromatin
DNA + Histone proteins together
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Centromere
The point where the the 2 replica DNA strands are held together
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Chromatids
The 2 replica DNA strands in a pair are sister chromatids
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Interphase
The stage where DNA is replicated
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Mitosis
The Process of nuclear division to produce 2 genetically identical nuclei from one parent cell nucleus.
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Cytokinesis
The stage when the cytoplasm divides
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Prophase
The replicates chromosomes supercoil
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Supercoiling
When the chromosomes shorten and thicken
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Metaphase
Replicated chromosomes line up down the middle of the cell
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Anaphase
The replicas of each chromosome are pulled apart to the opposite ends of the cell poles
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Telophase
The two nuclei are formed
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Clones
Genetically identical cells or organisms derived from one parent
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Zygote
Fusion of a male and female gamete
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Differentiation
The changes occuring in cells of a multicellular organism so that different cells become specialised to perform a specific function
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Squamous epithelial tissue
Made up of cells that are flattened and form a thin, smooth surface - used as lining of blood vessels
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Ciliated Epithelial tissue
Made up of column shaped cells - found on inner surface of tubes like the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, uterus and oviducts
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Card 2

Front

The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between 2 objects close together.

Back

Resolution

Card 3

Front

Any process that helps to distinguish different features, using coloured dyes in light microscopy and metal particles in electron microscopy

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The network of protein fibres found within cells that gives structure and shape to a cell. It also moves organelles around inside cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A particular structure of a cell that has a specialised function. Some are membrane bound, others are not.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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