cells

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what is an organelle?
a specific structure in a cell which performs a specific function
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give an example of a prokaryotic cell.
bacteria
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give examples of eukaryotic cells.
animal cells, plant cells, funghi
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outline the differences of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
p has no nucleus, no organelles, DNA not associated with proteins, and single celled - e is the opposite
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is an epithelial cell eurkaryotic or prokaryotic, and where is it found?
eukaryotic in the small intestine
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what is the function of an epithelial cell and how does it carry it out?
absorption of digested food molecules by diffusion and AT
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how is it adapted?
-microvilli increase SA. -mitochondria release energy for AT and they are close to where AT takes place.
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what is the function of the nucleus?
-maintain DNA and chromosomes. -manufacture RNA and ribosomes. -act as control in mRNA production and protein synthesis.
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what is the function of lysosomes?
-breakdown material ingested by phagocytes. -digest old organelles so useful chemicals can be re-used.
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what are lysosomes?
vesicles containing digestive enzymes.
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what is the function of the rER?
-provide large SA for protein synthesis. -provide pathway through the cell for protein transport.
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what are cisternae?
chambers that are covered in ribosomes and make up the rER,
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what is the function of the sER?
to synthesise, store, and transport lipids and carbs.
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what is the function of ribosomes?
protein synthesis.
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what is the function of the golgi apparatus/body?
-make glycoproteins. -produce secretory enzymes. -secrete carbs. -transport, modify, store lipids. -form lysosomes. -process + package proteins.
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what is the function of the microvilli?
to increase SA for efficient absorption.
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what is the function of the mitochondrion?
-produce energy in the form of the carrier molecule ATP. -release energy in aerobic respiration.
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what is osmotic lysis?
the splitting/breaking of cells because of too much water.
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what is the function of the cell wall in a prokaryotic cell?
prevent osmotic lysis.
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what are the optional structures in a prokaryotic cell?
slime capsule, mesosome, plasmids, flagellum
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what is cell fractionation?
the process of breaking open cells to release different organelles by separating them.
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what does the tissue have to be placed in before the process can begin and why?
ice cold water- to reduce enzyme activity which may break down organelles. -isotonic to prevent osmotic lysis because it has the same water potential as the tissue. -buffered to maintain a constant pH so enzymes aren't denatured.
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describe the first stage.
homogenisation- cells broken up by blender to release organelles to make a homogenate. It is then filtered to remove complete cells and debris.
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describe the second stage.
ultracentrifugation- organelles are separated in a centrifuge and the most dense/largest are spun down first.
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describe the sequence in which things are spun down.
nuclei then mitochondria then ribosomes.
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what is the maximum magnification of a light microscope?
x1500
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what is their resolving power like?
low because they have long wavelengths.
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what is the resolving power of electron microscopes like?
high because of short wavelengths.
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what are the disadvantages of electron microscopes?
-images in black and white. -everything seen must be dead.
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what is the difference between the TEM and the SEM?
TEM- high resolution and 2D image. SEM- low resolution and magnification and 3D image.
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Card 2

Front

give an example of a prokaryotic cell.

Back

bacteria

Card 3

Front

give examples of eukaryotic cells.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

outline the differences of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

is an epithelial cell eurkaryotic or prokaryotic, and where is it found?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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