Cells

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System
This usually refers to a group of organs whose functions are closely related.
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Organism
Organs and systems working together to produce an independent plant or animal.
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Physiology
Refers to all the normal functions that take place in a living organism
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Structural proteins
Proteins that contribute to the structures of the cell. (cell membranes, mitochondria, ribosomes, chromosomes)
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Enzymes
Proteins that control the chemical reactions of the cell. Present in membranes, mitochondria, special vacuoles, and the fluid part of the cytoplasm.
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Amino acids
The building blocks of proteins. About 20 different types.
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Cross-linkages
These occur in protein chains between amino acids that aren't neighbours.
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Denatured
When a molecule permanently loses its shape, and its properties.
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Lipids
Oils, fats, or substances related to, or derived from them.
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Glucose
C6H12O6. A commonly occurring simple sugar.
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Maltose
C12H22O11. Two molecules of glucose combined.
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Monosaccharides
Sugars with a single carbon ring.
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Disaccharides
Sugars with two carbon rings.
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Polysaccharide
A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules joined together.
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Glycogen
A polysaccharide that forms a food storage substance in many animal cells.
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Starch
A polysaccharide that is an important storage substance in the plastids of plant cells.
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Cellulose
A polysaccharide that is grouped together to form microscopic fibres, which are laid down in layers to form the cell wall in plant cells.
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Anabolic reactions
Reactions in which large molecules are built up from smaller molecules.
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Amylase
An enzyme in your saliva which can break down starch to sugar in minutes, or seconds.
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Catabolic reactions
Reactions which split large molecules into smaller ones.
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Optimum
The pH or temperature at which an enzyme works best.
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Protease
An enzyme which acts on proteins
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Dehydrogenase
An enzyme which removes hydrogen from a substance
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Substrate
The substance on which an enzyme acts
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Intracellular enzymes
Enzymes which function inside the cell to speed up reactions in the cytoplasm and nucleus.
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Extracellular enzymes
Enzymes which are let outside of the cell.
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Respiration
The process by which energy is produced from food. It takes place in cells.
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Aerobic respiration.
Respiration that needs oxygen.
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Oxidation
When oxygen is combined with food molecules.
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Oxidized food
Food molecules that have combined with oxygen.
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ATP
Adenosine triphosphate. Created in the mitochondria, used as a source of energy for intracellular chemical reactions.
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Anaerobic respiration
Respiration that doesn't need oxygen.
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Pyruvic acid
In animals, the first stage of respiration in muscle cells is anaerobic and produces this acid.
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Oxygen debt
A build up of lactic-acid which must be oxidized later.
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Adipose tissue
Fatty tissue underneath the skin
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Thyroxine
A hormone produced by the thyroid gland in the neck
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Vitamins
A group of organic substances quite unrelated to each other in their chemical structure
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Basal metabolism
The 2400kJ needed to maintain the circulation, breathing, body temperature, brain function, and essential chemical process in the liver and other organs.
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Malnutrition
Not getting enough food/too much food/wrong sort of food
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Plaque
Fatty deposits in the arteries
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Saturated fats
Animal fats
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Unsaturated fats
Plant fats
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Bulkin agents
A preservative added to meat to help it retain water, gain weight, and then can be sold at a higher price.
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Active transport
When substances are taken into or expelled from the cell against the concentration gradient, using energy.
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Passive transport
When substances move around concentration gradients, without energy. Eg. diffusion, osmosis.
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Osmosis
Water diffusing from the dilute to concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane.
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Water potential
A measure of whether a solution it is likely to lose or gain water molecules from another solution.
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Concentration/diffusion gradient
The bigger the difference in concentration of a substance on either side of a membrane, the faster it will tend to diffuse.
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Endocytosis
Taking in solid particles or drops of fluid through the cell membrane. Eg. amoeba.
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Exocytosis
Expelling solid particles or drops of fluid through the cell membrane. Eg. in cells of glands.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Organs and systems working together to produce an independent plant or animal.

Back

Organism

Card 3

Front

Refers to all the normal functions that take place in a living organism

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Proteins that contribute to the structures of the cell. (cell membranes, mitochondria, ribosomes, chromosomes)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Proteins that control the chemical reactions of the cell. Present in membranes, mitochondria, special vacuoles, and the fluid part of the cytoplasm.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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