Cells

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  • Created by: Pope1912
  • Created on: 12-03-15 09:26
Nucleus
Controls cell activity.
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Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane surrounding the nucleus.
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Nuclear Pores
Allow the movement of large molecules out of the nucleus.
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Nucleoplasm
The granular, jelly-like substance that makes up the bulk of the nucleus.
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Chromatin
DNA found within the nucleoplasm. This is the form that chromosomes take up when the cells are not dividing.
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Nucleolus
Small spherical body within the nucleoplasm. It also assembles ribosomes.
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Mitochondira
Release energy via respiration.
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Double Membrane of Mitochondria
Surrounds the organelle. The outer one controls the entry and exit of substaces. The inner one is folded to form cristae.
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Cristae
Shelf-lik extensios of the inner membrane. These provide a large surface area for the attatchment of enzymes involved in respiration.
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Matrix
Semi-rigid material containing protein, lipids and DNA traces that allows the productio of proteins. Enzymes involved in respiration are found in the matrix.
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes present on the outer surface. Large surface area for protein synthesis and glycoproteins. Proides a pathway for the transport of materials, especially proteins, throughout the cell.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Lacks surface ribosomes. Syntheisise, store and transport lipids and carbohydrates.
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Golgi Body
Form Glycoprotiens. Produce secretory enzymes. Secrete carbs. Transport, modify and store lipids. Form lysosomes.
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Lysosomes
Break down material ingested by phagocytic cells. Release enzymes to the outside of the cell to destroy surrounding material. Digest worn out organelles so chemicals can be reused. Break down dead cells.
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Ribosomes
80s found in eukaryotic (bigger). 70s found in prokaryotic (smaller). Important for protein syntheisis.
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Microvilli
Increase the surface area to increase absorption efficiency.
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Hydrophilic
Water loving.
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Hydrophobic
Water hating.
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Extrinsic Proteins
Occuer on the surface of the bilayer of are only partly embedded (never extend across the full width). They act as mechanical support or in conjunction with glycolipids as cell receptors for molecules such as hormones.
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Intrinsic Proteins
Completely span the phospholipid bilayer. Some act as carriers to transport water-soluble material across the membrane while others are enzymes. They also allow active transport across the membrane.
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Fluid Mosaic
The induviual phospholipid molecules can move relative to one another making it flexible. The potiens vary in shape and size and form mosaic like patterns.
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Glycoprotein
Branching carbohydrate portion of a protein which acts as a reogn8ition site for chemicals like hormones.
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Glycolipid
Acts as a recognition site eg. cholera toxins.
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Osmosis
The net movement of water from a region of high water potential to an area of low water potential through a partially permeable membrane.
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Active Transport
The movment of molecules or ions in and out of a cell from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration using energy and carrier proteins.
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Cell Wall
Physical barrier that protects against mechanical damage and excludes certain substances.
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Capsule
Protects bacterium from other cells and helps groups of bacteria to stick together for further protection. It also keeps the cell hydrated.
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Cell-surface membrane
Acts as a differentially permeable layer which controls the entry and exit of chemicals.
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Flagellum
Aids movement of bacterium.
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Circular DNA
Possesses the genetic information for the replication of bacterial cells.
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Plasmid
Possesses the genes that aid the survival of bacteria in adverse conditions. eg. produces enzymes which break down antibiotics.
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Cytoplasm
Jelly-like substance that contains enzymes and other soluble materials.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Double membrane surrounding the nucleus.

Back

Nuclear Envelope

Card 3

Front

Allow the movement of large molecules out of the nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The granular, jelly-like substance that makes up the bulk of the nucleus.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

DNA found within the nucleoplasm. This is the form that chromosomes take up when the cells are not dividing.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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