Cells

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What Is The Function Of The Nucleolus?
Makes RNA and Ribosomes
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What Is The Function Of The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Transports Proteins Which Were Made On Attached To Ribosomes
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What Is The Function Of Chloroplasts?
Site Of Photosynthesis- Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Glucose + Oxygen
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What Is The Function Of Mitochondria?
Releases ATP Energy Through Respiration- Glucose + Oxygen--> Carbon Dioxide And Water And Energy
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What Is The Function Of The Nucleus?
Contains Genetic Material
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What Is The Function Of The Golgi Apparatus?
Modifies And Packages Proteins
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What Is The Function Of The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Produces Lipids
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What Is The Function Of Centrioles?
Cell Division- Form Spindle Fibres
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What Is The Function Of Lysosomes?
Contain Digestive Enzymes- Used to destroy pathogens
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What Is The Function Of Ribosomes?
Attached To RER And Synthesises Proteins
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What Is The Resolution Of A Light Microscope?
200nm
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What Is The Resolution Of An Electron Microscope?
0.2nm
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What Is The Magnification Of A Light Microscope?
x1500
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What Is The Magnification Of A Scanning Electron Microscope?
x100 000
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What Is The Magnification Of A Transmission Electron Microscope?
x500 000
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Disadvantages Of A Light Microscope?
Only x1500
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Advantages Of A Light Microscope?
Cheap To Buy, Easy To Prepare Samples
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Advantages Of An Electron Microscope?
3D Images, More Detail, See Organelles Within Cells, Higher Magnification
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Disadvantages Of An Electron Microscope?
Expensive Too Buy, Has To Be Prepared In A Vacuum
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Difference Between SEM and TEM
2D vs 3D, x100 000 vs x500 000, Black And White, Vacuum
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Define Magnification
The Degree To Which The Image Size Is Larger Than The Actual Size Of The Object
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Define Resolution
The Degree To Which You Can Distinguish Between Two Objects
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What Is The Equation To Work Out Magnification?
Magnification= Image Size/Actual Size
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Difference Between Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes?
Prokaryotes Have No Nucleus But A Naked Strand Of DNA. Eukaryotes Have Membrane Bound Organelles, Prokaryotes Do Not. Prokaryotes Have Smaller Ribosomes Than Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes Use Mitochondria To Respire, Prokaryotes Use Cell Surface Membrane.
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Name The 4 Stages Of Mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
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What Happens During Prophase?
Chromosomes Supercoil And Become Visible, Spindle Fibres Form, And The Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
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What Happens During Metaphase?
Chromosomes Attatch To Spindle Fibre's Equator At The Centromere And Chromosomes Line Up In The Middle Of The Cell
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What Happens During Anaphase?
Spindle Fibres Shorten Moving The Chromatids And Chromosomes Are Pulled Apart At The Centromere And Moved Towards Opposite Poles Of The Cell
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What Happens During Telophase?
Spindle Fibres Break Down, Chromosomes Uncoil, Nuclear Envelope Forms Around Each Set Of Chromosomes And Two New Nuclei Are Formed
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What Is Cytokinesis?
The cytoplasm divides
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What Is Interphase?
Biosynthesis Where Proteins and Organelles Are Synthesised, Synthesis Where DNA Is Replicated And Growth Where The Cell Becomes Bigger
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What Is The Role Of Membranes?
A Partially Permeable Barrier Which Controls The Passage Of Gases and Substances Across The Cell
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Function Of The Phospholipid Bilayer In The Fluid Mosaic Model?
Hydrophilic Head And Hydrophobic Tails Form The Basic Structure
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Function Of Cholesterol In The Fluid Mosaic Model?
Gives Mechanical Stability- Improves Barrier
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Function Of Enzymes And Coenzymes In The Fluid Mosaic Model?
Metabolic processes- respiration and photosynthesis
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Function Of Receptor Sites In The Fluid Mosaic Model?
A Site Where Hormones And Drugs Can Bind In Order To Achieve A Response
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Function Of Carrier Proteins In The Fluid Mosaic Model?
Actively move substances across the membrane- e.g. active transport in root hair cells
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Function Of Channel Proteins In The Fluid Mosaic Model?
Movement of some substances across the membrane (Ions that are too large or too hydrophilic)
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Function of Glycolipids/Glycoproteins In The Fluid Mosaic Model?
Cell Signalling In The Immune System
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What Is Binary Fission?
Asexual Reproduction In Prokaryotes- Replicates Genetic Material- Entire Cell Divides Into Two
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How Does Cell Division Take Place In Plants?
Plants Do Not Have Centrioles (Spindle Fibres) But Use Microtubules And Microfilaments
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Describe And Explain The Secretion Of Proteins From A Cell (8 Mark)
DNA replicated + transcribed by mRNA- mRNA transports DNA strand to RER- rRNA translates code- Ribosome synthesises protein- tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome- Protein modified and packaged (vesicle) by the Golgi Apparatus- Exocytosis at membrane
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What Is The Importance Of A Cytoskeleton?
Strength and controlled movement
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Differences Between Plant And Animal Cells?
Animal Cells have no vacuole or chloroplasts
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What Is The Effect On The Cell Membrane And Its Permeability Of The Temperature Is Changed?
Higher Temp= Membrane flows more, Lower Temp= Phospholipids pack tighter, [Cholesterol prevents them moving too close or too far from each other]
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What Is Cell Signalling?
Cells communicate by cell signaling - one cell produces a chemical that is detected by another cell.
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What Is Passive Transport?
Naturally occurring movement of particles without the need of energy to transport
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What Is Simple Diffusion
The movement of particles from a low to high concentration
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What Is Facilitated Diffusion?
Carrier Protein with a special channel acts as a selective corridor transporting molecules across the membrane
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What Is Osmosis?
The movement of water down a water potential gradient from a high to low water potential
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What Is Active Transport?
With the use of ATP energy, chemicals/substances are moved against a gradient
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What Is Endocytosis?
A form of bulk transport- Transporting substances into a cell
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What Is Exocytosis?
A form of bulk transport- Transporting substances out of a cell
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What Effects Can A Change Of Water Potential Have On A Plant Cell?
Low water potential--> water moves out of the cell making it plasmolysed, High water potential--> water moves into the cell making it turgid
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What Effects Can A Change Of Water Potential Have On An Animal Cell?
Low water potential--> water moves out of the cell making it crenated, High water potential--> water moves into the cell until it bursts
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What Are The Three Stages Of The Cell Cycle?
Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis
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What Is A Homologous Pair Of Chromosomes?
A genetically identical pair of chromosomes
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How Do Microorganisms Such As Yeast Carry Out Cell Division?
Budding- Asexual Reproduction- Leaves scarred tissue- Clone
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What Is A Tissue?
A group of specialised cells working together to carry out the same function (e.g. cardiac muscle)
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What Is An Organ?
A group of tissues working together to carry out an overall function (e.g. the heart)
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What Is An Organ System?
A group of organs working together to carry out an overall function/process (e.g. the circulation system)
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Give 7 Examples Of Specialised Cells
Sperm Cell, Erythrocytes, Neutrophils, Root Hair Cells, Palisade Cells, Guard Cells and Epilethal Cells
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How Are Sperm Cells Specialised?
Undulipodium- More mitochondria to release ATP energy to move. Head contains Acrosome (Lysosome) releases enzymes to penetrate egg.
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How Are Root Hair Cells Specialised?
Cilia to increase surface area to absorb more water/minerals, thin layer for quicker absorption, less water + minerals than in soil to maintain a gradient
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How Are Palisade Cells (In Leaves) Specialised?
Chloroplasts for photosynthesis, cylindrical shape to increase surface area and absorption of light, placed top of leaf to absorb more light.
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How Are Epilethal Cells Specialised?
2 Types of cells- Ciliated epithelium keeps airways clear of mucus/foreign objects. Beat in synchronised pattern towards the trachea. Squamous epithelium lines airway in smooth layer, stops objects catching in airway. Single layer for diffusion.
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How Are Guard Cells Specialised?
They can become flaccid or turgid depending on whether the plant is 'stressed' or not (e.g. temperature) plant produces acid which membrane has receptors for. Message makes guard cells flaccid, closing pore, less water loss.
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How Are Erythrocytes Specialised?
Biconcave shape, lack of organelles, no DNA, more surface for haemoglobin + smaller volume, greater uptake of oxygen.
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How Are Neutrophils Specialised?
More lysosomes- digestive enzymes break down harmful invading microorganisms -engulf the bacteria. Lobed nucleus increases cell flexibility.
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What Is Differentiation?
Differentiation is the process in a cell where it changes in order to become more suited to its particular function (Erythrocytes and Neutrophils from bone marrow, Xylem Vessels, Sieve Tube Elements From Cambium)
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Card 2

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What Is The Function Of The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?

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Transports Proteins Which Were Made On Attached To Ribosomes

Card 3

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What Is The Function Of Chloroplasts?

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Card 4

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What Is The Function Of Mitochondria?

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Card 5

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What Is The Function Of The Nucleus?

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