Cells and Tissues

What is the definition of Physiology?
The study of function (the way in which a living organism or bodily part function)
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What is the definition of Anatomy?
The study of body structures and their relation to other structures in the body.
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What is the definition of Histology?
The microscopic study of tissue.
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What is the definition of Histopathology ?
The study of changes in tissues caused by disease.
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What is the definition of Cytology?
The medical and scientific study of cells. (makes diagnoses of diseases and conditions through the examination of tissue samples from the body)
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What is the definition of Biochemistry?
Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
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What is the definition of Pathology?
Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.
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What is the definition of Pathophysiology?
The study of changes in the way the body works that result from disease or injury.
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What is the organisation of the human body starting from the smallest component?
Molecules - Cell organelles - Cell -Tissue - Organ - System - Human Body
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Identify different types of cells within the human body
Sperm cell, smooth muscle cell, red blood cell, nerve cell, and epithelial cell.
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A cell consists of 4 basic parts, what are they?
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleoplasm.
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Identify the 4 different tissue types in the body
Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, and Nervous tissue.
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Identify the different systems of the body
The immune system, the renal system, the cardiovascular system, the muscular and skeletal systems, The Integumentary system, The Respiratory System, The Gastro Intestinal System, The endocrine system
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What is Endocytosis?
Endocytosis is the process by which cells take in molecules such as proteins from outside the cell by engulfing them with their cell membranes. During endocytosis the cell membrane plays a part to form a fold and a new intracellular pod is formed.
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What is the definition for Pinocytosis?
Pinocytosis means 'cell drinking' and is the method of a cell absorbs small particles outside the cell and brings them inside
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What is the definition for Phagocytosis?
Phagocytosis means cell eating and it uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle, giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.
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What is the definition of Exocytosis?
Exocytosis is a process for moving items from the cytoplasm of the cell to the outside. The intracellular vesicle with its ingested substances fuses with the cell membrane to get rid of the unwanted substance from the cell
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Name the different functions of a cell
Absorption, Excretion, Irritability, Conductivity, Contractility, Growth, Reproduction, Metabolism
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All cells have the ability to perform certain functions, please write a short sentence to outline what happens in each of the following - Absorption
Red blood cells have a flat disc shape (bi-concave) which gives them a large surface area, and the best chance of absorbing as much oxygen as they can.
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Cell excretion is a process of removing toxic substances and metabolic waste products By the cell clearing its waste products by bringing the waste close to the cell membrane and closing the membrane around the waste products.
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Is the ability of living organisms responding to changes in their environment.
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Conductivity is measured by using a conductivity cell to make a measurement of the electrical resistance.
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Contractility is used by cells to divide, to migrate, to heal wounds, and to pump the heart and move limbs.
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Cells in many tissues in the body divide and grow very quickly between conception and adulthood. When cells become damaged or die the body makes new cells to replace them.
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Cell reproduction is the process by which cells divide to form new cells.
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Cellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Cellular metabolism involves complex sequences of controlled biochemical reactions.
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What is a cell membrane?
It is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment which protects the cell from its environment.
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What are the functions of a cell membrane?
Helps substances transport, receives chemical messengers from other cell, acts as a receptor, transports proteins and nutrients,selective semi permeable membranes, which means that some molecules can diffuse across the lipid bilayer but others cant.
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What is the role of proteins in the cell membrane?
They transport proteins, use energy to catalyse passage, transport some nutrients against the concentration gradient which requires additional energy.
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What is cytosol?
It is the liquid found inside cells and separated into compartments by membranes.
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What is cytosols functions?
All chemical reactions required for the cell occur in the cytosol and the maintenance and growth of the cell depends on the chemical reactions.
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What is the role of a nucleus?
he nucleus controls and regulates the activities of the cell
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What is the function of a nucleus?
It controls characteristics of an organism, It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation,
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What is DNA?
DNA is the essential ingredient of heredity, makes all the basic units of hereditary material the genes. deoxyribonucleic acid – part of the double helix/chromosome
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What are chromosomes?
Each chromosome , a complicated strand of DNA and protein, is made up of two chromatids joined by a centromere. A chromosome is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism.
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How many chromosomes does a human cell have?
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.
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What is RNA?
RNA is ribonucleic acid, transcribed from DNA. It determines the amino acid composition of proteins, which in turn determines the functions of those proteins and hence the function of any particular cell.
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What is MtDNA?
Energy‐producing site of the cell; mitochondria are self‐replicating. They are organelles found in cells that act as the energy‐producing sites of the cell
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Why is MtDNA given this nickname?
mtDNA encodes for two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 proteins subunits, all of which are involved in the oxidative phosphorylation process. The complete sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA in graphic form.
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Where is there an abundance of mitochondria?
Some cells have more mitochondria than others. Your fat cells have many mitochondria because they store a lot of energy. Muscle cells have many mitochondria, which allows them to respond quickly to the need for doing work.
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Name the two types of endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
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What is the role of endoplasmic reticulum?
It forms a series of flattened sacs within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and serves multiple functions, being important particularly in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins
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What are ribosomes?
Ribosomes are special because they are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While a structure such as a nucleus is only found in eukaryotes, every cell needs ribosomes to manufacture proteins.
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What are the functions of ribosomes?
Ribosomes are a cell structure that makes protein. Protein is needed for many cell functions such as repairing damage or directing chemical processes.
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Where is Golgi Apparatus found?
Golgi complex is found in most cells and it is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
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What is the function of Golgi Apparatus?
It combines simple molecules into more complex ones, it packages the big molecules into vesicles and stores them for later or sends them out of the cell, builds lysosomes, and may also create complex sugars and send them off in secretory vesicles.
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What is meant by the term apoptosis?
A type of cell death in which a series of molecular steps in a cell lead to its death
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What is meant by the term phagocytosis?
Phagocytosis, process by which certain living cells called phagocytes ingest or engulf other cells or particles.
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What is meant by the term hydrolysis?
It is the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
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What is meant by the term autophagy?
A process by which a cell breaks down and destroys old, damaged, or abnormal proteins and other substances in its cytoplasm (the fluid inside a cell).
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What is the role of Peroxisomes?
They are small vesicles found around the cell. They have a single membrane that contains digestive enzymes for breaking down toxic materials in the cell. They differ from lysosomes in the type of enzyme they hold.
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What is the function of Peroxisomes?
Peroxisomes absorb nutrients, digest fatty acids, involved in the way organisms digest alcohol (ethanol), involved in cholesterol synthesis and the digestion of amino acids.
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How is Peroxisomes created?
Their enzymes attack complex molecules and break them down into smaller molecules. One of the byproducts of the digestion is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
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Uric acid oxidase is used to do what in the body?
Blood pressure forces water and dissolved waste products, such as urea and uric acid, into the kidney tubules during the formation of urine
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What condition would occur if there was an absence of uric acid oxidase?
Disease. If there is some damage to uricase or if it is absent in the body, it may be detrimental. Without a functioning uricase, there will be an excess amount of insoluble uric acid in the body which leads to a disease called gout.
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Microfilaments what is their function in the cell?
You will find microfilaments in most cells. They are the partner of microtubules. They are long, thin, and stringy proteins. Microfilaments assist with cell movement and are made of a protein called actin.
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Microtubules what is their function in the cell?
microtubules are thick, strong spirals of thousands of subunits. Those subunits are made of the protein called tubulin. It helps define cell structure and movement
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Explain Cell reproduction
The process of cells divide to form new cells. Each time a cell divides, it makes a copy of all of its chromosomes, which are tightly coiled strands of DNA, sends an identical copy to the new cell that is created.This is a process called Mitosis
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Explain Meiosis
Meiosis is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information. These cells are our sex cells – sperm in males, eggs in females.
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How are gametes produced?
They are produced through cell division called meiosis. During meiosis, a diploid parent cell undergoes one round of DNA replication followed by two separate cycles of nuclear division to produce four haploid cells.
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How do cells differentiate?
When a cell differentiates (becomes more specialized), it may undertake major changes in its size, shape, metabolic activity, and overall function.
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During growth and development give examples of Ectoderm
the ectoderm forms shortly after the egg is fertilized, and rapid cell division initiates. The epidermis of the skin originates from the less dorsal ectoderm which surrounds the neuroectoderm at the early gastrula stage of embryonic development.
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What is the definition of Anatomy?


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What is the definition of Histology?


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What is the definition of Histopathology ?


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What is the definition of Cytology?


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