Cells

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  • Created by: AK786
  • Created on: 11-09-16 22:31
What takes place in cells?
Chemical reactions
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What are structures in the cell called?
Organelles (small part of the cell e.g. nucleus)
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Give a brief description and function of nucleus
- Largest organelle - Roughly spherical -Double membrane, surrounded by nuclear envelope - envelope has pores called nuclear pores - Contains Chromatin mixture of DNA and proteins - Controls protein synthesis (makes mRNA).
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Give a brief description and function of nucleolus
-Found in nucleus - Area of dense chromatin within nucleus - Its a granular structure not surrounded by membrane - Nucleolus makes rRNA and ribosomes.
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Give a brief description and function of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Consits of flattened tubes called cisternae which are studded with ribosomes - Attached to outer nuclear membrane -Ribosomes assemble polypeptides which are transported within the RER where they fold into 3D shape - Produces proteins for export
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Give a brief description and function of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Consists of flattened tubes called cisternae - NOT studded with ribosomes -Attached to nuclear envelope - Produces lipids
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Give a brief description and function of Golgi apparatus
-Stack of membrane bound flattened cells parallel to each other -Forms lysomes- Recieves proteins packaged in vesicles from RER -Modifies proteins by addition of sugar
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Give a brief description and function of Golgi apparatus
Packages modified proteins into vesicles for transportation to the cell surface membrane and secretion out of the cell
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Give a brief description and function of Ribosome
-Smallest organelle - Not membrane bound - Consists of 2 subunits, can be free in cytoplasm or attached to RER - Site of protein synthesis- mRNA from nucleus is read & used to assemble polypeptides from amino acids
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Give a brief description and function of Lysome
-Spherical sacs surrounded by single layer membrane - consists of digestive enzymes called Lysozymes - Digests unwanted material in the cell- Lysozyme enzymes are used in breakdown of materials taken up by the cell
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Give a brief description and function of Vesicle
-Membrane bound sac -Used to move substances around the cell -Looks like a bubble
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Give a brief description and function of Cell surface membrane
Bilayer made of protein and phospholipid that surrounds cytoplasm of all cells. - Partially permeable - acts as a barrier - Can hold other structures in place - controls passage of substances into and out of cell
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Give a brief description and function of Cell surface membrane
-Regulates internal environment of the cell. -Involved in cell signalling and recognition
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Give a brief description and function of Mitchondria
-Spherical sausage shape organelle with double membrane -Inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae.
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Give a brief description and function of Chloroplast
-Found only in plant cells and algae - double membrane -Inner layer is continuous & forms flattened membrane sacs called thylakoids - Site of photosynthesis a process in which glucose is produced - contains chlorophyll: photosynthetic pigment
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Give a brief description and function of Cellulose cell wall
-Found in plants, algae and fungi - Outside of cell membrane and composed of a mesh of cellulose fibres -Supports the cell -Helps maintain cell shape
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Give a brief description and function of Cell vacuole
-Only found in plant cells -Large membrane bound sac containing water and solutes - Storage of water and solutes - Maintenance of cell turgidity
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Card 2

Front

What are structures in the cell called?

Back

Organelles (small part of the cell e.g. nucleus)

Card 3

Front

Give a brief description and function of nucleus

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give a brief description and function of nucleolus

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give a brief description and function of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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