Cells

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  • Created by: lh1002
  • Created on: 04-06-16 16:41
What is a Prokaryotic and a Eukaryotic cell?
Prokarytic cells do not contain membrane bound organelles (nucleus, mitochondria etc.)- bacteria cells; eukaryotic cells do contain these organelles- plant and animal cells
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What are stem cells?
Cells that can differentiate into many types of cell
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What are the two different types of stem cell and what are they made from?
Embryonic stem cell- made from human embryos and adult stem cells- made from bone marrow.
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What is aseptic technique?
A method designed to stop contamination from microorganisms
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What, in terms of mitosis, does a cancer cell look like?
Cancer cells have 90% mitosis (cell division) and 10% interphase (growth and duplication). It should be the opposite.
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For what 3 reasons do cells need to divide?
To allow growth of the organism; to allow repair of the tissue; for asexual reproduction- the duplication of cells
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What does MRS GREN stand for?
Movement, Reproduction, Sensitivity, Growth, Respiration, Excretion, Nutrition. These are the characteristics of all living organisms
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What is the definition of a cell?
The basic structure and function unit of a living organism
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What is the definition of a tissue?
A group of cells with similar functions
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What is the definition of an organ?
A structure made from multiple tissues
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What is the definition of an organ system?
A group of organs with similar functions
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What is the definition of an organelle?
A part or structure of a cell with a particular function such as a nucleus or mitochondria
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What are the stages of the cell cycle?
Cell division-cell growth and function-duplication of DNA-cell checking and function-repeat
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What is present in a bacteria cell?
Cell membrane, cell wall, ribosomes, flagella (not always present), ring of plasmid DNA, large chromosomal ring of DNA, cytoplasm
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What is the function of a root hair cell and what is one of its adaptations?
Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil. It has a long 'finger like' process with a thin wall (good for osmosis) which gives it a large surface area.
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What is the function of a palisade cell and what is one of its adaptations?
Enables photosynthesis. Has a large surface area to absorb light and CO² and have lots of chloroplasts near the surface.
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What is the function of a sperm cell and what is one of its adaptations?
Fertilises the egg cell. The tail helps the cell move and its head contains genetic information. It also has a streamlined shape for fast movement.
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What is the function of a red blood cell and what is one of its adaptations?
Contains haemoglobin which carries oxygen. There is no nucleus to make more room for the haemoglobin and has a biconcave shape which means it has more surface area to allow more oxygen to be carried.
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What is the function of a xylem and what is one of its adaptations?
Involved in the movement of water through a plant. Long hollow tubes which allows water to move from the root to the leaves
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What is the function of a phloem and what is one of its adaptations?
Involved with translocation- movement of food substances from the stems to tissues. Has lots of mitochondria in companion cells to provide energy
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What are three important things to do when using aseptic technique?
Petri dishes must be sterilised before use; inoculating loops must be sterilised by passing them through a flame; the lid of the Petri dish should be secured
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What is the function of a cilated epithelial cell and what is one of its adaptations?
Cilia (tiny hairs on the surface) sweep mucus, bacteria and dust to the back of the throat. The cell has lots of mitochondria to give the cell lots of energy
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What is the function of a neurone and what is one of its adaptations?
They carry information as tiny electrical signals. They are long so they can communicate with distant parts of the body. They also have branched end which connect with other neurones.
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What are three points about chromosomes?
The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes made of DNA molecules. Each chromosome carries a large number of genes. In body cells the chromosomes are normally found in pairs of 23.
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Card 2

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What are stem cells?

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Cells that can differentiate into many types of cell

Card 3

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What are the two different types of stem cell and what are they made from?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is aseptic technique?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What, in terms of mitosis, does a cancer cell look like?

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