1. chloroplasts have 2 membranes, with flattened sacs called thylakoids and stacks of thylakoids called granum
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2. The golgi apparatus modifies and then packages proteins into vesicles?
3. what is the effect of a hypertonic solution on an animal cell?
- net movement of water molecules is into the cell, causing it to burst.
- net movement of water is out of the cell, causing it to shrink
- water molecules move into and out of the cell in equal amounts, resulting in no changes to the cell.
- net movement of water is out of the cell, causing it to become flaccid, and the cytoplasm to pull away from the cell wall, so that it is plasmolysed
4. Define endocytosis
- the movement of molecules down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration, to an area of low concentration.
- the process of taking materials into a cell by surrounding them with part of the plasma membrane, which then pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell.
- the process of removing materials from the cell by fusing vesicles containing the material with the plasma membrane
- the passive movement of molecules across membranes, down their concentration gradient, which is aided by carrier protein molecules.
5. staining is any process that helps reveal or distinguish different features. in light microscopy, stains may be colours or fluorescent dyes. in electron microscopy, they are metal particles or metal salts.