Cell Ultrastructure

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What is the average size of the Nucleus in um?
10 - 20 um
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Name 3 structural features of the nuclear envelope.
Its a double membrane, it has pores (to allow the passage of mRNA out of the nucleus) and it is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
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What is the granular jelly-like substance found in the nucleus for, and what is its function?
The Nucleoplasm. It contains chromatin which, during cell division coils up to form chromosomes.
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What is the average size of the mitochondria in um?
1 - 10um
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Do mitochondria have a double or single membrane?
Double membrane. The area inside of this membrane is called the Inter-membrane space.
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What organic substances are contained with in the matrix of the mitochondria?
Numerous chemical compounds. Includes protein, lipids and even traces of DNA.
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What is the function of the mitochondria?
To produce ATP for the cell.
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Where does aerobic and anarobic respiraion take place in the cell?
Aerobic respiration takes place in the inner-membrane and the matrix of the mitochondria and anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
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What is the function of the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum?
Transporting proteins made by the ribosomes.
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What is the structural difference between the smooth ER and the rough ER? (ER=Endoplasmic Reticulum)
The Rough ER has ribosomes on the outer membrane whereas the smooth ER lacks ribosomes on the outer membrane.
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What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
The smooth enoplasmic reticulum is concerned with the transport and synthesis of lipids.
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What is the role of ribosomes?
Protein Synthesis.
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Name the 2 places that ribosomes are usually found in a cell?
They are generaly found on the Roungh endoplasmic reticulum but can also be found singly in the cytoplasm.
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What is the organelle that modifies and packages proteins?
The golgi apparatus (also known as the golgi body).
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Describe the proccess by which the golgi apparatus is formed.
The golgi apparatus is formed when small parts of the endoplasmic reticulum are pinched off at the end to form vesicles. When a number of these vesicles join together they form the golgi apparatus.
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What type of enzyme is found inside of Lysosomes?
Digestive enzymes.
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What is the function of Lysosomes?
To digest and destroy worn out cells and bacteria.
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Where does the digestion of substance by Lysosomes take place?
In small membrane-lined vacuoles.
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Which type of cell (animal or plant) are centrioles found in?
Animal cells.
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Where are centrioles found?
In the centrosome (located just outside of the nucleus).
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Describe the structure of centrioles.
They are 2 hollow tubes that are poitioned at right angles to each other.
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What is the function of the centrioles?
During cell division they will go to opposite sides of the cell and synthesise the microtubles of the spindle.
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What is the function of Chloroplast?
To perform photosynthesis inside of plant cells.
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what is the structure formed by astack of thylakoids inside of a chloroplast?
A granum.
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What is the structure of a thyalkoid (Inside the chloroplast)?
A thylakoid is a small flattened sac. They are positioned parralellel to other thylakoids.
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What does the stroma contain and which organelle is it part of?
The stroma contains ribosomes, lipids, circular DNA and other structures; such as starch. It is found inside chloroplast.
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What is the name of the single membrane bounding the permanent vacuole in plants?
The tonoplast.
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What does the vacuole contain?
Vacuoles contain cell sap; a storage site for chemicals such as glucose.
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What are the 2 main functions of the vacuole?
Storage, and to provide turgency by the osmotic system.
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What is the cell wall of a lant made up of?
Cellulose.
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Is the cellulose cell wall in plants permeable or non-permeable?
It is fully permeable to water and substances in solution.
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What is the role of the cell wall?
To provide a mechanical strenght to the cell.
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What are narrow pores that the cell wall contains that allow plant cells to interconnect?
Plasmodesmata.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name 3 structural features of the nuclear envelope.

Back

Its a double membrane, it has pores (to allow the passage of mRNA out of the nucleus) and it is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.

Card 3

Front

What is the granular jelly-like substance found in the nucleus for, and what is its function?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the average size of the mitochondria in um?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Do mitochondria have a double or single membrane?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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