Cell organelles and functions

Cell wall
Surrounds the cells of plants. Microfibrils made of the polysaccharide cellulose are embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and protein. Protects the cell, maintains the cell's shape and prevents excessive uptake of water.
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Middle lamella
Polysaccharide layer that lies between the walls of plants cells, and which acts to glue adjacent cells together
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Plasmodesmata
Link the contents of one cell with its neighbour, allowing the passage of water and other small molecules, and in some cases large molecules such as proteins
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Plasma membrane
Acts as a selective barrier allowing the passage of oxygen, nutrients and wastes between the cell and its environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins.
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Cytoplasm
Fluid enclosed by the cell membrane containing organelles. Location of many chemical reactions
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Nucleus
The nucleus contains most of the genetic material of the cell and is bound by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. Chromosomes and nucleoli are found in the nucleus suspended in a fluid called nucleoplasm.
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Nucleolus
A small, generally spherical body found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed in the nucleolus and exported to the nucleus for assembly into the ribosomal subunits
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Nuclear pore
The pores allow the passage of certain large molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Each pore is part of a nuclear pore complex consisting of over 100 different proteins.
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Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis.Ribosomes are found 'free' in the cytosol (these synthesise proteins such as enzymes that function within the cytosol), or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Bound ribosomes generally make proteins that will become integrat
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Endomembrane system
Includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and various kinds of vacuoles. The membranes of these organelles are related either through direct physical continuity or by the transfer of membrane segments through th
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Functions in diverse metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates and detoxification of drugs and other poisons. A modified ER called sarcoplasmic reticulum is found in the cells of skeletal muscle fibres. It contro
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes stud the cytoplasmic surface of the RER. . As a polypeptide chain grows from a bound ribosome, it is threaded through the ER membrane. During this process it folds and any modifications are made, such as the addition of carbohydrate groups
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Golgi apperatus
Modifies and stores transport vehicles before sending to other destinations. The Golgi body is especially extensive in cells specialised for secretion, and consists of flattened membranous sacs
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Lysosomes
Not found in plant cells. They are bound by a single membrane and contain hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Polysaccharide layer that lies between the walls of plants cells, and which acts to glue adjacent cells together

Back

Middle lamella

Card 3

Front

Link the contents of one cell with its neighbour, allowing the passage of water and other small molecules, and in some cases large molecules such as proteins

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Acts as a selective barrier allowing the passage of oxygen, nutrients and wastes between the cell and its environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Fluid enclosed by the cell membrane containing organelles. Location of many chemical reactions

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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