cell division, differentiation and organisation questions

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  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 23-04-14 13:35
define gene
a length of DNA that carries the code for one polypeptide
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what are histone proteins?
the protien that dna is wound around to form chromatin
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what is chromatin?
the term used to describe the DNA and the histone protiens
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when do chromosomes become visible?
when the chromotin condenses in prophase
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after DNA replication, chromosomes become what?
two sister chromatids connected by a centromere
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how many chromosomes do humans have?
46, 23 pairs
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what are homologous chromosomes?
a pair of chromosomes that have the same shape and size, same genes (perhaps different alleles), and have centromere in the same possition
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what is mitosis used for?
to produce two genetically identical cells witch can be used for growth, repair, replacement or asexual reproduction
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what does diploid mean?
2 copies of each chromosome in DNA
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what does haploid mean?
one coppy of each chromosome
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what the the stages of interphase?
G1 (growth), S (synthesis), G2 (growth)
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what happens in G1 phase of interphase?
the organelles in the cell replicate. there is also a G1 checkpoint, where cells check that cell has sufficient nutrients and is an adequate size
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what happens in G2 phase of interphase?
there is further growth, and a check point that checks chromosome replication is complete and there is no DNA damage
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what are the stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
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what happens to a cell at prophase?
chromosomes supercoil and become visible, the centrioles in the cell divide in to two, to form spindles, and the nuclear envelop is dispersed
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what happens to a cell at metaphase?
the centrioles move to the poles, chromosomes move to equator, centrioles form mitotic spindles by shooting microtubrials and connecting to centromere.
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what happens to a cell at anaphase?
spidle fibers shorten, centromere splits and chromatds are pulled appart
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what happens to a cell at telophase?
chromosomes gather at poles and start to uncoil. the spindle breaks down and nuclear envelop starts to form
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what happens at cytokineses?
the cell membrane pinches down to form two separate genetically identical cells
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what is cloning?
producing genetically identical cells
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how do yeast replicate?
asexually (budding). after mitosis organelles move into bud , and it's membrane pinches off.
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how do bacteria replicate
asexual reproduction (binary fission) -don not have chromosome
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what is different about cell division of a plant?
can only occur in meristem cells, cytokinises starts in the middle and forms a cell plate wich cell wall and membrane build against. there is also no centriols, so protein threads are made in cytoplasm
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in plants where are meristem cells located?
in roots, shoot tips and ring of stem
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what is cambium?
meristem located in plant stem, between phloem and xylem
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what are stem cells?
cells that have the capacity to divide and develop into different cell types
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what is the name of stem cells that can develop into any cell? where are they found?
Totipotent, embrionic
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what is the name of the stem cells that can develop int differnt types, but not all cells?
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why are scientists interested in stem cells?
used to develop cells that can replace diseased or damaged ones
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what are the different types of animal tissue?
nervous, muscle, connective, epithelial
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what are the features of squamous epithelial tissue?
flat, thin, smoothe, held in place by basement membrane wih is secreed and made of collagen and glycoprotiens
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what does genome mean?
genetic information
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what are gametes?
half the number of chromosomes
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how are root hair cells specialized for their function?
long extension to increase surface area, carrier proteins on cell membrane, o
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how are sperm cells specialised for their function?
flagellum (movement),acrosome (help digest egg surface), many mitochondria (for energy for propell)
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what is the proper name for RBC's
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how are RBC's specialised for their function?
bioconcave (icrease surface area to take up oxygen), no nucleus or mitochondria (more space for hemoglobin), small and flexible (fit through capilaries)
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Card 2


what are histone proteins?


the protien that dna is wound around to form chromatin

Card 3


what is chromatin?


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Card 4


when do chromosomes become visible?


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Card 5


after DNA replication, chromosomes become what?


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