Cell definitions

Definitions for module 1 of OCR AS Biology. Not yet complete. 

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  • Created by: Amy Mc
  • Created on: 09-12-14 19:48
Magnification
The degree to which the size of an image is larger than the object itself.
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Resolution
The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects that are close together.
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Micrometre
One millionth of a metre.
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Nanometre
One thousandth of a micrometre, or one thousand millionth of a metre.
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Cytoskeleton
The network of protein fibres found within cells that gives structure and shape to the cell, and also moves organelles around inside cells.
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Cell signalling
Processes that led to communication and coordination between cells.
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Diffusion
The movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.
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Active transport
The movement of molecules or ions across membranes, which uses ATP to drive protein 'pumps' within the membrane, against a concentration gradient.
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Cell cycle
The events that take place as one parent cell divides to produce two new daughter cells which then each growth full size.
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Mitosis
The process of nuclear division where two genetically identical nuclei are formed from one parent cell nucleus.
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Clone
A genetically identical cell or organism derived from one parent.
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Differentiation
The changes occurring in cells of a multicellular organism so that each different type of cell become specialised to perform a specific function.
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Allele
A version of a gene
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Anaphase
The mitotic stage where the newly separated chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindle.
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Binary fission
Method of cell division in bacteria. The DNA replicates and the cell divides into two, each having the same DNA as the parent cell.
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Carrier protein
A protein found in membranes, which is capable of carrying a specific molecule or ion through the membrane by active transport or facilitated diffusion.
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Cellulose
A carbohydrate polymer that forms plant cell walls.
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Centriole
An organelle from which the spindle fibres develop during cell division in animal cells.
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Centromere
The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined together, and where the spindle fibre attaches during cell division.
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Channel protein
A protein pore that spans a membrane, through which very small ions and water-soluble molecules may pass.
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Cholesterol
A lipid molecule found in all cell membranes and involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects that are close together.

Back

Resolution

Card 3

Front

One millionth of a metre.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

One thousandth of a micrometre, or one thousand millionth of a metre.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The network of protein fibres found within cells that gives structure and shape to the cell, and also moves organelles around inside cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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