Cell Biology, PS1060

Week 2

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1. What are the two basic cell types
Prokaryotes - these are mainly bacteria. Eukaryotes - higher plant and animal cells.
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2. List 7 major Organelles.
Plasma membrane. Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Golgi apparatus. Endoplastic reticulum. Vacuoles. Mitochodria.
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3. What does the Plasma Membrane Do? (Two things)
Lets the good stuff in and the bad stuff out - maintains homeostasis. Has selective permeability.
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4. What is the Plasma membrane made out of?
This makes up the interior of the cell. It holds the other organelles.
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5. What is the structure of the Plasma membrane like? (two things)
Fluid and mosaic.
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6. Name two other components of the Plasma membrane?
Out of; Cholesterol, Transport Proteins, Proteins on internal surface.
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7. Example of what can happen with plasma membrane dysfunction? (include psychologists name)
Bipolar disorder (Kidd, 2004)
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8. What is the cytoplasm?
The fluid inside the cell
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9. What is the cytoplasm made out of?
Cytosol. Larger proteins - ribosomes and cytoskeleton.
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10. Define Nucleus.
It controls the cell. Gives directions to the making of proteins.
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11. Where is the nucleolus and what does it do?
Inside the nucleus and it makes ribosomes which are sites where proteins are made.
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12. What is the nucellus envelope and what is it made of?
It is a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus. Made up of 2 phospholipid layers.
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13. What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
It is a series of highly folded membranes. It is where cellular chemical reactions take place.
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14. Difference between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum? (3)
Rough have ribosomes attaches. . Rough forms part of the plasma membrane and is transported to other organelles. Smooth is involved in the production and storage of lipids.
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15. What does DNA do?
It carries the chemical side that tells the cell the correct sequence of amino acids required to produce the protein that the gene codes.
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16. What are proteins made out of and what are they used for?
Amino acids bonded by peptide bonds. They are used by organisms for structural support and as enzymes.
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17. What do we need to make proteins?
RNA - a nucleic acid.
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18. Name the three types of RNA and say what they do?
Messenger, Ribosomal and Transfer.
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19. Describe transcription.
It is a process that occurs within the nucleolus. RNA polymerase makes an RNA copy of a portion of DNA then sends it to the cytoplasm.
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20. Describe Translation.
A process of turning a genetic message of MRNA into a protein.
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21.What is the Golgi Apparatus?
A flattened system of tubular membranes and vesicles. It modifies proteins and sorts and packages them.
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22. What is a vacuoles?
A vacuole is a sac surrounded by a membrane.
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23. What is a Lysomes?
Organelle which contain digestive enzymes. Can fuse with vacuoles and digest the contend.
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24. What does Mitochondria do and how?
Provides energy in a form that can be used by the cell whenever. Converts food molecules into energy by oxidation. Energy is released to produce ATP.
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25. Structure of the Mitochondria?
Has an outer membrane and a highly folded inner membrane. Provides a large surface area.
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26. What is ATP?
Adenosine Triphosphate. A molecule in the cell that allows quick and easy access to energy when needed by the cell's organelles. It releases energy when chemical bonds are broken.
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27. H ow does ADP form?
When an ATP bond between one of the phosphate groups is broken.
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28. Can ADP turn back into ATP?
Yes. Can be recharged by the process of mitochondria.
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29. What is creatine and why is it important?
Creatine is what plays a key role in ATP buffering and synthesis via the CK catalysed reaction. This is important for metabolism.
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30. What is linked with a creatine deficiency?
Severe cognitive dysfunction and neurological disorder.
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31. What does Creatine supplementation do?
Enhances cognitive performance.
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32. What does Mytochondrial dysfunction lead too?
Learning difficulties, neuropathy, dementia.
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33. What is cellular respiration?
A process of taking oxygen and glucose and turning them into ATP.
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34. Three phases of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle, electron transport chain.
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35. What happens when you run out of oxygen?
Fermentation. Two types; lactic acid and alcoholic.
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Card 2


2. List 7 major Organelles.


Plasma membrane. Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Golgi apparatus. Endoplastic reticulum. Vacuoles. Mitochodria.

Card 3


3. What does the Plasma Membrane Do? (Two things)


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Card 4


4. What is the Plasma membrane made out of?


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Card 5


5. What is the structure of the Plasma membrane like? (two things)


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