Cell Bio- Stem Cells Renewal

  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 05-05-13 11:13
Erythrocytes, neutrophils, osteoclasts, dendritic cells, B and T cells are part of what system?
Haemopoietic system
1 of 22
What haemopoietic lineage creates a) B, T and killer cells and b) neutrophils, osteoclasts, macrophages...etc?
a) lymphoid progenitor from pluripotent haemopoietic progenitors b) common myeloid progenitor from haemopoietic pluripotent progenitors
2 of 22
What are the 3 properties a cell has to have to make it a stem cell?
1. Divides indefinitely 2. replaces itself at each division 3. capable of generating all of its derivative cell types
3 of 22
What is the order of stem cell potency/commitment?
Totipotent, multipotent, bipotent & pluripotent and then differentiated cells.
4 of 22
At which stage do stem cells become committed?
Bipotent/pluripotent stage
5 of 22
Stem cells are important for 2 reasons:
To replace cells which are lost each day e.g. red blood cells and for clonal expansion in response to infection
6 of 22
Where are haemopoietic cells found?
Precursor cells for different lineages are found intermingled with fat cells in the bone marrow in adults.
7 of 22
Explain how you would prove that bone marrow contains haemopoietic stem cells?
Irradiate a mouse so that all its blood cell production is halted (all immune function lost, mouse should die), inject bone marrow cells from healthy donor into mouse (5 enough), injected stem cells colonise tissue and generate new blood cells
8 of 22
What can you use to determine the fate of a stem cell?
Lineage markers by dye injection on a retro virus
9 of 22
What factors maintain the haemopoietic cell identity and how is it maintained?
Signalling through the Notch-Delta pathway and Kit-Scf pathway (Stem cells express Notch and Kit receptors) which means that they maintain their identity only in certain environments (where stromal cells present)
10 of 22
What factor promotes a) B cell development from the lymphoid progenitor b) promotes change from haemopoietic progenitor to myeloid progenitor c) Myeloid progenitor to erythrocytes?
a) Pax5 b) G-CSF c) Erythropoeitin
11 of 22
Stem cells are located where in the gut?
The gastric mucosa where it replenishes the secretary cells of gastric glands and surface mucous cells
12 of 22
Differentiated cells are found where in the gut epithelium? And where are stem cells found?
In goblet cells. Stem cells are found above paneth cells where they migrate upwards towards goblet cells
13 of 22
What system controls gut stem cell proliferation?
Wnt pathway- too little means arrested growth, too much = over growth (cancer)
14 of 22
What factors control the differentiation process of enterocyte (epithelial cells found in the intestine and colon)?
Math-1, a target site of noth-delta signalling pathways regulates enterocyte vs non-enterocyte fate
15 of 22
What happens in math-1 KO's?
No goblet cells form
16 of 22
How do you obtain embryonic neural crest cells
Dissociate embryonic brain into single cell suspension and prevent attachment to avoid monolayer growth, supplement with growth factors= neurospheres (suspended neural crest cells). These can be plated out and dissociate into any neural cell type
17 of 22
How are embryonic stem cells manipulated in vitro?
The inner cell mass in trophoblast is manipulated by the introduction/alteration of genes as the ICM has great proliferative potential (one
18 of 22
What is the protocol for maintaining mouse ES cells?
ES cells are transferred onto feeder layer of fibroblasts, leukaemia inhibitory factor is added so cells differentiate into neurons then LIF is removed and retinoic acid is added so cells differentiate into embryoid bodies (similar to neurospheres)
19 of 22
What are the conditions for generating differentiated cells from ES cells?
Supplement with specific GF's, growth of cells on distinct substrates, co-culture with differentiated cells
20 of 22
What are the 2 ways that mature/differentiated cells can be reprogrammed?
de-differentiation (from a differentiated cell to a pluripotent cell) and transdifferentiation via direct reprogramming whereby a differentiated cell is irreversibly 'switched' to a different cell of another lineage
21 of 22
How do you induce ploripotency experimentally?
Isolate fibroblasts from skin biopsies, transfection with a combo of growth factors to induce stem cell differentiation and expand
22 of 22

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What haemopoietic lineage creates a) B, T and killer cells and b) neutrophils, osteoclasts, macrophages...etc?

Back

a) lymphoid progenitor from pluripotent haemopoietic progenitors b) common myeloid progenitor from haemopoietic pluripotent progenitors

Card 3

Front

What are the 3 properties a cell has to have to make it a stem cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the order of stem cell potency/commitment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

At which stage do stem cells become committed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar All resources:

See all All resources »