Cell Structures & Their Functions

These flashcards consist of cell structures and their basic appearances and functions. 

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Cell surface membrane
Semi-permeable; Controls the exchange of substances between the cell and its external environment
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Nucleus
The largest cell organelle; Controls all the activities of the cell
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Nuclear envelope
Has small pores called nuclear pores; Allows and controls exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
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Rough endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive system of sacs which is continuous with the nuclear envelope and is covered with many ribosomes; Allows processes to take place in these sacs, separated from the cytoplasm and transports protein to the Golgi apparatus
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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Lacks ribosomes but has the same flattened compartments called sacs as the rough ER; Makes lipids & steroids such as cholesterol and the reproductive hormones oestrogen and testosterone
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Golgi apparatus
A stack of flattened sacs called cisternae; Collects, processes and sorts molecules (particularly proteins), ready for transport in Golgi vesicles to other parts of the cell or out of it
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Mitochondria
Sausage-like shape and surrounded by two membranes and the inner of these is folded to form finger-like cristae which projects into the interior solution or matrix; Carries out aerobic respiration and the synthesis of lipids
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Ribosomes
Just visible as black dots (80S in cytoplasm but 70S in mitochondria and chloroplasts); The site for protein synthesis
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Lysosomes
Spherical sacs, surrounded by a single membrane; Contain hydrolytic enzymes and are responsible for the breakdown of unwanted structures
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Centrioles
A hollow cylinder formed from a ring of short microtubules (9 triplets of microtubules); Act as MTOCs if found at the bases of cilia where they are known as basal bodies
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Microtubules
Long, rigid, hollow tubes found in the cytoplasm; Together with actin filaments & intermediate filaments, they make up the cytoskeleton, Allow movement of secretory vesicles & organelles & cell components along its outside surfaces
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Chloroplasts
An elongated shape, surrounded by two membranes which forms the chloroplast envelope; Carry out photosynthesis
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Cell wall
Contains fibres of cellulose; Gives the cell a definite shape, Prevents the cell from bursting when water enters by osmosis, Freely permeable to allow free movement of ions and molecules
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Plasmodesmata
Fine strands of cytoplasm which pass through pore-like structures in the cell wall; Link neighboring plant cells
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Large permanent vacuole
Surrounded by a membrane called the tonoplast and contains a solution of sugars, etc.; Regulate the osmotic properties of the cell e.g. the flow of water inwards and outwards, Contains the pigments that are responsible for the colour of some petals
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Tonoplast
The membrane around a vacuole; Controls the exchange between the vacuole and cytoplasm
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Small circular DNA and Ribosomes in Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
Responsible for the coding and synthesis of certain vital proteins
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The largest cell organelle; Controls all the activities of the cell

Back

Nucleus

Card 3

Front

Has small pores called nuclear pores; Allows and controls exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An extensive system of sacs which is continuous with the nuclear envelope and is covered with many ribosomes; Allows processes to take place in these sacs, separated from the cytoplasm and transports protein to the Golgi apparatus

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Lacks ribosomes but has the same flattened compartments called sacs as the rough ER; Makes lipids & steroids such as cholesterol and the reproductive hormones oestrogen and testosterone

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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