Cell Structure and Organisation

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What is more powerful, a light microscope or an electron microscope?
An electron microscope
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What is smaller, a cell or an organelle?
An organelle
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What is the importance of the membrane?
To control which substances enter and leave a cell or an organelle, can provide a large surface area by folding for metabolic processes
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What is the plasma membrane?
A 7-8nm thick phospholipid bilayer
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What is the name of the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus?
The nuclear envelope
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What are the names of the holes in the nuclear envelope?
Nuclear pores
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What is inside the nuclear membrane?
Nucleoplasm which contains chromatin
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What is chromatin?
It is the material that chromosomes are composed of
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What is found in the nucleus where ribosomes, rRNA and mRNA are manufactured?
Nucleolus
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What is the function of the chromatin?
It contains the genetic material which will condense and coil tightly to form chromosomes during cell division
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How do ribosomes, rRNA and mRNA leave the nucleolus?
They pass out of the nucleus via the nuclear pores
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Do mitochondria have a single or double membrane?
Double
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What is formed in mitochondria where the inner membrane folds?
Cristae
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What is the solution inside the mitochondria called?
The matrix
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What 2 smaller substances are found in the matrix and why?
A small circle of DNA and small (70s) ribosomes. These enable the mitochondria to make some of their own proteins and self-replicate
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What is the function of mitochondria?
They're the site of aerobic respiration where ATP is produced. Metabolically active cells require large amounts of ATP so have more mitochondria e.g. liver cells.
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Where are ribosomes found?
Floating freely in cytoplasm or attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
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What occurs at the ribosomes?
Protein synthesis
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What is their size described as?
80s
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What do ribosomes consist of?
One large and one small subunit
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Describe the structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space (Cisternae)
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What is the surface of RER covered with?
Ribosomes
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Where is the RER found?
It is often close to the nucleus and links with he nuclear membrane
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What is the function of the RER?
Proteins are synthesised by the ribosomes on the surface of the RER. The RER transports the proteins
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Describe the structure of the SER
It's similar to the RER but without the ribosomes
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What is the function of the SER?
It synthesises and transports lipids.
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Describe the structure of the golgi apparatus/body
A series of membrane bound flattened sacs
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What is the function of the golgi apparatus/body?
Proteins from the RER travel to the golgi in transport vesicles, they then enter the golgi and are combined with carbohydrates to form glycoproteins. These are then repackaged into secretory vesicles and transported to the cell membrane
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Describe the structure of a lysosome
Single membrane, contain hydrolytic enzymes
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What is the function of lysosomes?
They fuse with other vesicles in the cell which contain something that needs to be digested e.g. pathogens
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Describe the structure of microtubules
Small hollow cylinders made from the substance tublin
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What is the function of microtubules?
Act as a guide for moving organelles in the cell
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In what type of cell only are centrioles found?
Animal cells
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Describe the structure of centrioles
2 hollow cylinders, positioned at right angels to eachother
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What are centrioles made from?
Rings of microtubules
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What is the function of centrioles?
Involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell divison
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Describe the structure of vesicles
Small fluid sacs surrounded by a membrane
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What is the function of vesicles?
To transport substances to and from the outside of the cell via the cell membrane.
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What is a vacuole?
A fluid filled sac with a single membrane
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What is the name of the single membrane of vacuoles?
Tonoplast membrane
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What type of vacuole is present in animal cells and in plant cells?
In plant cells there is a large permanent vacuole which is filled with water and solutes, in animal cells there is a small temporary vacuole
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What is the cell wall?
A rigid structure made from cellulose that surrounds plant cells
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What are the functions of the cell well?
Gaps between the cellulose fibres make the wall fully permeable to water and ions, it provides mechanical strength and they have pores called pits through which plasmodesmata pass
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What is the name of the double membrane that surrounds chloroplasts?
Chloroplast envelope
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What are the membranes inside the chloroplast called?
Thylakoids
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What is formed when thylakoids stack up?
A granum (plural: grana)
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Where are the photosynthetic pigments found?
In the thylakoids
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What are grana linked together by?
Lamellae
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What is the name of the fluid in chloroplasts?
Stroma
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What is contained in stroma?
Ribosomes, circular DNA, lipids and starch grains
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What is the significance of the 70s ribosomes and DNA in stroma?
It enables chloroplasts to self replicate
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What is the function of chloroplasts?
They are where the reactions of photosynthesis takes place
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What are said to be the 2 basic types of cells?
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
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What is a prokaryotic cell?
A single-celled organism lacking membrane bound organelles, with DNA free in the cytoplasm
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What is a eukaryotic cell?
An organism containing cells that have membrane bound organelles, with DNA in chromosomes within the nucleus
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What do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells both have?
A plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA and RNA
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What are flagella?
A flagella are a long whip-like projections that enable them to move
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What do some prokaryotes contain that are similar to cristae?
Mesosome
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What happens at the mesosome?
Aerobic respiration
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What are prokaryotic cell walls made from?
Murein
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What is the definition of a tissue?
Tissue is a group of physically similar linked cells that work together to carry out the same function
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Where is cuboidal epithelial found?
The tubule of the kidney nephron
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Where is columnar epithelium found?
Fallopian tubes
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Where is squamous epithelium found?
Bowman's capsule
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What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal, smooth, cardiac muscle
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Where is skeletal muscle found?
Attached to the skeleton
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What gives skeletal muscle a powerful contraction?
They're made of fibres
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Where is smooth muscle found?
In the walls of intestines and blood vessels
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Is smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary?
Involuntary
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Where is cardiac muscle found?
Only in the heart
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What is connective tissue?
These are strong tissues that connect, support and separate tissue
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What is an organ system?
A group of organs working together to carry out a particular role
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Give an example of an organ system and some of the organs involved
Excretory - Kidney, bladder Circulatory - Heart, aorta Reproductive - Ovary, testis
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Card 4

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Card 5

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What is the name of the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus?

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