Cell structure and mitosis

For the eduqas branch of wjec

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  • Created by: lridgeway
  • Created on: 06-04-18 14:18
What type of cells are eukaryotic?
animal, plant and fungi (have nulceli)
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Which organelles are found in eukaryotic cells and what are they all?
nucleus, 80s ribosomes, nuclear envelope, mitochondria and cell wall in plants and fungi and chloroplasts in plants. They are all membrane bound
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In what form is DNA found in eukaryotic cells?
chromosome form
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What organelles are present in a plant cell?
cell membrane, cell wall, vacuole, nucleus, golgi body, rough ER, ribosome, chloroplasts, mitochondia, cytoplasm and vesicles
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What organelles are present in an animal cell
cell membrane, rough ER, smooth ER, mitochondria, centriole, golgi body, ribosome, nucleus, lysosome and vesicles
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How in DNA found in prokaryotic cells?
loose in cytoplasm
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What are the main types of cells that are prokaryotes?
bacteria
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What is/isn't in prokaryotic cells?
no membrane bound organelles (no nuclear envelope, mitochondria or chloroplasts), 70s ribosomes, some have plasmid/slime coat, some have a flagellum and all use mesosomes to get energy
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Describe the structure of a virus
RNA containing information covered by a caspid (protein coat for protection). May also have core nucleic acids and tail fibres
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What is the function of cytoplasm?
acts as a store for chemicals and is the site of many chemicals reactions/ metabolic pathways
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What is the structure of cytoplasm?
soluable part is cytosol and it is 90% water
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What is the function of cell membrane?
to control what enters and leaves the cell
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What is the structure of the nucleus?
bounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope with nuclear pores. Contains chromatin (loosely coiled DNA around histone proteins) and a nucleolus
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What are the functions of the nucleus components?
pores in envelope aloow transport of mRNA nucleotides, chromatin controls the cell activity and heredity and the nucleolus produces rRNA
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What is the structure of the cell wall?
fully permeable cell wall which consists of cellulose ,icrofibrils in a polysaccharide matrix
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What is the function of the cell wall?
provides strength and support in plants, can help communication and helps plants not to burst when turgid
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What is the structure of plasmodesmata?
pores in the cell wall carrying fine strands of cytoplasm
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What is the function of plasmodesmata?
joins cells to one another and facilitates movement of materials between cells
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What is the structure of ribosomes?
two types 70s and 80s amd both consist of a small and a large subunit. Its made equally of rRNA and protein. one of the smallest organelles
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What is the function of ribosomes?
Carry out proyein sysnthesis and can be free or bound to ER
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What is the structure of smooth ER?
membrane of flattened sacs called cisternae without ribosomes and it originates from outer membrane of nucleus and may still be attached
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What is the function of smooth ER?
is responsible for lipid and steorid synthesis and can form vesicles to transport these
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What do vesicles do?
transport molecules round the cell
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What do lysosomes do?
are vesicles from golgi body containing digestive enzymes and destroy worn out organelles
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What is structure of the golgi body?
flattened sacs of cisternae and at one end new cisternae are formed by vesicle fusion and at the other end they break up into vesicles
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What is the function of the golgi body?
responsible for processing and packaging for example secreting carbs, forming glycoprotein and forming lysosomes
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What is the structure of mitochondria?
rod shaped or cylindrical. bound by a double membrane with inner one folding to form cristae inner emebrane large SA and inner matix consists of lipids and proteins
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What is the function of mitochondria?
site of aerobic respiration/ ATP synthsis
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What is special about mitochondira of chloroplats?
possible in the past they were bacteria as have own DNA and ribosomes
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What is the structure of chloroplasts?
consists of a double membrane containing stroma. Also has grana made of thylakoid membrane
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What is the function of chloroplasta?
thylakoid membrane makes chlorophyll and the chloroplast is the sit of photosynthesis
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What is the function and structure of centrioles?
two rings of microtubles at right angles to one another and is used in spindle formation in cell division
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What is the structure of a vacuole?
small vesicles in an animal cell and may be fomred during phagocytosis or be contractile. in plant cells they are large and surrounded by tonoplast
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What is the function of a vacuole?
plant cell vacuoles act as storageand when turgid are full of sap. interaction with cell wall creates strength
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What is centrifugation?
cell disruption and organelle isolation
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What are the first 4 steps of centrifugation?
cut up in isotonic buffer (same amount of solute and maintains pH). tissues are homogenised either by pestle or blender. filtered through muslin. filtrate centrifuged at low speed to remove cell wall debris part opened cells an heavy starch grains.
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What is formed after these steps?
supernatent suspension
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How does differntial centrifugation work?
spin at different speeds to seperate due to density. slowest speed - nuclei and chloroplasts. medium speed - mitochondria and lysosomes. highest speed - ribosomes and ER
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How does denisty-gradient centrifugation work?
adds supernatent suspension to denisty gradient sucrose. once centrifuged they seperate due to density in tube. removed in fractions via hole in the bottom of the tube
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What is the magnification equation?
image size = actaul size x magnification
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What unit must all calculations be in?
micrometers
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Define a tissue and give an example
aggregation of similar cells that carry out the same function. eg epithelial, muscle
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Define a organ and give an example
aggregation of different tissue that carry out a particluar function for the organism eg stomach, liver in animals and leaf in plant
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Define an organ system and give an example
a group of organs working for a particle role. eg digestive system, circulatory system, reproductive system and respiratory system
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What is epithelium tissue?
one or a few layers of simple cells, on internal and external organ surfaces. they protect the other organ tissues
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What are the types of epithelium tissue?
cuboidial (froms linings and can be secretory and are pentagonal or hexagonal when viewed), ciliated ( line oviducts, brain ventricles, spinal cord and respiratory system as well as goblet cells), squamous, columnal
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What is muscle tissue?
elongated cells or fibres which are highly specialised and can shorten to half their resting length
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What types of muscles are there?
striated (mucles fibres, cylindrical and in parallel lines and are the voluntary muscles), smooth (individual spindle shaped cells in bundles and are involuntary like intestinal, urinary and repiratory system muscles), cardiac (heart muscles)
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What is connective tissue?
binds organs and it is glycoproteins held by hydrogen bonds in a triple helix. an example is collagen
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What is mitosis?
division of nucleus
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What are the 4 stages of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase
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What happens in prophase?
DNA replicated, chromosomes condense and form centromere, centrioles move to poles of the cell, spindle fibres form, at end nucleus and nuclear membrane disintergrate
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What happens in metaphase?
spindle fibres attach to centromeres, chrorosomes align along equator
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What happens in anaphase?
spindle fibres contract and shorten, chromatids seperated and pulled centromere first towards poles
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What happens in telephase?
chromosomes uncoil, spindle fibres break down, nuclear envelope reforms and nucleolus reappears, form cleavage with cytoplasm
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Compare mitosis to meiosis
body cells vs gametes, no homologous pairing vs homologous pairing, 2 diploid vs 4 haploid cells, one divide vs two divides, identicall DNA vs non identical DNA
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name the biggest section of the cell cycle and its components in order?
interphase which contains G1 , S-pahse and G2
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What is the cytokinesis and when does it occur in the cell cycle?
two cells seperating and organelles are distributed, happens after mitosis
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What happens in G1 ?
cell synthesises more organelles, protein and ATP. cell also grows in size
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What happens in S-phase?
DNA synthesises and replicated
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What happens in G2 ?
protein sysnthesis, increased respiration rate and centrioles replicate
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which organelles are found in eukaryotic cells and what are they all?

Back

nucleus, 80s ribosomes, nuclear envelope, mitochondria and cell wall in plants and fungi and chloroplasts in plants. They are all membrane bound

Card 3

Front

In what form is DNA found in eukaryotic cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What organelles are present in a plant cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What organelles are present in an animal cell

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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