Cell structure and division

Give 2 functions of the cell surface membrane.
1) to regulate movement of substances into and out of the cell 2)to respond to chemicals like hormones.
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Describe the function of the nucleus.
Controls the cells activities by controlling the transcription of DNA.
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Give 1 function of a lysosome.
Digest invading cells, break down worn out components of a cell
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What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Synthesises and processes lipids.
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Explain the difference between a tissue and an organ.
Tissue- where similar cells are grouped together Organ-where different cells are grouped together to perform a particular function.
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What is an organ system?
Where different organs work together to carry out a particular function.
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What is a capsid?
The protein coat that surrounds the genetic material of a virus.
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Formula for calculating magnification.
Magnification= size of image/ actual size
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What is the difference between magnification and resolution?
Magnification= how much bigger the image is compared to the specimen Resolution=how well the microscope can distinguish between 2 points that are close together.
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How do transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) work?
Use electromagnets to focus a beam of electrons, which is then transmitted through the specimen.
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How do scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) work?
They scan a beam of electrons across the specimen.
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Give one advantage and one disadvantage of TEMs.
Advantage= Gives high resolution images Disadvantage=Can only be used on non-living specimens.
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Give one advantage of SEMs over TEMs.
SEMs can be used on thick specimens and TEMs cannot. SEMs can produce 3D images whereas TEMs cannot.
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What is a temporary mount microscope slide?
A prepared microscope slide in which the specimen has been suspended in a drop of liquid.
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What is a microscope artefact?
Something you can see down the microscope that is not part of the cell or specimen you are looking at.
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Give 2 ways in which homogenisation for cell fractionation is done.
1) vibrating the cells 2) grinding the cells up in a blender.
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What is the cell cycle?
The process that all body cells from multi cellular organisms use to grow and divide.
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Why is mitosis needed?
For growth and for repairing damaged tissues.
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In what stage of the cell cycle does DNA unravel?
Interphase.
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What happens during prophase?
The chromosomes condense and become shorter and fatter.
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What happens during telophase?
The chromatids reach opposite poles on the spindle. They uncoil and become long and thin again.
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What is cytokenesis?
Division of the cell cytoplasm.
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What is cancer?
A tumour that invades surrounding tissues.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the function of the nucleus.

Back

Controls the cells activities by controlling the transcription of DNA.

Card 3

Front

Give 1 function of a lysosome.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the difference between a tissue and an organ.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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