cell organism

  • Created by: Ronel.p
  • Created on: 09-05-18 14:07
Enzyme
are biological catalyst
1 of 81
what are enzyme made of
large protein
2 of 81
what are protenins made of
chains of amino acids
3 of 81
what are Enzymes are required in organisms
for most of the chemical reactions that occur in organisms
4 of 81
why do we only have enzyme
to speed up the useful chemical reaction in the body
5 of 81
what are chains folded into
unique shapes which enzymes need to do their jobs
6 of 81
what do substrate do
collide with active site of enzyme and becomes attached
7 of 81
what do all enzyme have in common
active site with an unique shape
8 of 81
what do enzyme catalyse with
one specific reaction
9 of 81
how do enzyme work
substrate fits into active site
10 of 81
what happens if the substrate doesn't work
then the reaction what be catalysed
11 of 81
lock and key theory.
This theory for the way in which enzymes work
12 of 81
what happens at the end of the active site
The products are realeased from the active site and enzyme molecule is unchanged and can be used again
13 of 81
what is the Physical factors that affect enzyme activity.
Temperature
14 of 81
what happens to enzyme At low temperatures
At low temperatures, the number of successful collisions between the enzyme and substrate is reduced because their molecular movement decreases. The reaction is slow.
15 of 81
what happens to enzyme at higher temperatures
high kinetic energy=more likely collsion
16 of 81
what temperature does the enzyme work at best in the body
The human body is maintained at 37°C as this is the temperature at which the enzymes in our body work best.
17 of 81
what happens at too high temperatures
Bonds holding the enzyme breaks, changing the shape of the enzyme active site so the substrate wont fit anymore
18 of 81
whats the affect of Ph on ezyme
Enzymes are sensitive to pH. Changing the pH of its surroundings will also change the shape of the active site of an enzyme.
19 of 81
what do amino acids carry
Many amino acids in an enzyme molecule carry a charge. Within the enzyme molecule,
20 of 81
what happens if you change the pH
Amino acids that attracted each other may no longer. Changing, the shape of the enzyme, along with its active site.
21 of 81
what do extreme ph do
denature enzymes. The changes are usually permanent.
22 of 81
Salivary amylase Ph
6.8
23 of 81
Stomach protease (pepsin) ph
1.5 - 2.0
24 of 81
Pancreatic protease (trypsin)
7.5 - 8.0
25 of 81
what are major nutrients we need in us
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (or fats)
26 of 81
what are Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (or fats) have in common
are big molecules
27 of 81
Why do we need to break it down
most of the molecules in food are too large to pass through the absorbing surface of the gut wall the carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are reassembled in the form required, rather than other animal or plant versions
28 of 81
what the major function of carbohydrate(used in the body for)
energy reasource in respiration. glucose is the main respiratory substrate
29 of 81
what the major fucntion of Proteins(used in the body for)
Growth and repair
30 of 81
what the major fucntion of lipids(used in the body for)
Energy, make up part of cell membranes so essential for normal growth
31 of 81
what the major sources of carbohydrate
Starch: potatoes, rice and wheat products, bread, cereals and pasta. Sugars: fruit, smoothies, fizzy drinks, chocolate and sweets
32 of 81
what the major sources of protein
Meat, eggs, cheese, beans, nuts and seeds
33 of 81
what the major sources of lipids
Butter and margarine, meat and processed meat, plant oils, oily fish, nuts and seeds
34 of 81
What is carbohydtare broken down into
sugars- such as glucose and maltose(mouth and first part of small intestine)
35 of 81
what is protein broken down into
amino acids
36 of 81
what is lipids broken down into
Glycerol and fatty acids
37 of 81
once carbohydrate is asborbed into the body what happens
glucose molecules are transported to cells and: used for respiration reassembled into the storage form of carbohydrate in animals - glycogen
38 of 81
how are excess amino acids broken down
by liver
39 of 81
what test is used to detect sugars.
Benedict's test
40 of 81
what is the Benedict's test method
prepare a food sample and add a solution to the food and then heat in a water bath
41 of 81
what happens in Benedict's test if the food contains reducing sugar e.g Glucose
the solution in the test tube will change from the normal blue colour to green(low), yellow, brick red(high)
42 of 81
hazards in Benedict's test
Wear safety goggles. Benedict's solution is an irritant. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
43 of 81
what test is used to detect starch
iodine solution
44 of 81
what is the test for starch method
Add iodine solution to the food being tested.
45 of 81
what colour would the solution be if it contain starch
change from browny organge to blue-black colour
46 of 81
hazards of starch test
Wear safety goggles. Iodine solution is an irritant. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
47 of 81
what test is used to detect protein
biuret test
48 of 81
what is the biuret test method
Add 1 cm3 of biuret solution A to the food solution. Mix the liquids. Add 1 cm3 of biuret solution B and shake.
49 of 81
what colour would the solution be if it contain protein
from blue to pink or purple
50 of 81
hazards of the birueit test
Wear safety goggles. Biuret solution A is corrosive. Biuret solution B is an irritant. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
51 of 81
what test is used to detect lipids
The Sudan III test
52 of 81
what is the The Sudan III test method
prepare a sample and transfer 5cm3 into test tube. then add drops of sudan 111 stain solution and gently shake
53 of 81
what colour would the solution be if it contain lipids
top layer red
54 of 81
hazards of The Sudan III test
Wear safety goggles. Sudan III solution is flammable as it is dissolved in alcohol. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
55 of 81
what The human digestive system two functions:
breaks down complex food substances/ provides the very large surface area for maximum absorption of food
56 of 81
Function of Mouth
Begins the digestion of carbohydrates
57 of 81
Function of Stomach
Begins the digestion of protein; small molecules such as alcohol absorbed
58 of 81
Function of Small intestine
Continues the digestion of carbohydrate and protein; begins the digestion of lipids
59 of 81
Function of Small intestine 2
completes the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins into single sugars and a
60 of 81
Function of Large intestine
Absorption of water; egestion of undigested food
61 of 81
what are Digestive enzymes for
to break down food in the gut into small, soluble molecules that can be absorbed through the gut wall.
62 of 81
The surface of the small intestine wall is folded, and has projections called
villi
63 of 81
. The carbohydrase that breaks down starch is
amylase
64 of 81
what enzyme break down protein
protease
65 of 81
what enzyme breaks down lipid
lipase
66 of 81
Where are amylase made
The salivary glands 2) the pancreas small intestine
67 of 81
where are protease made
The stomach(its called pepsin there) 2) the pancreas 3) the small intestine
68 of 81
where are lipids made
1)small intestine 2) pancreas
69 of 81
what video on Investigate the effect of pH on the rate of reaction of amylase enzyme
long
70 of 81
why do we repeat the ph practical
for reliability
71 of 81
what the independent variable
Ph
72 of 81
what the dependent variable
time taken for iodine to stop turning blue/black
73 of 81
what the control variable
Temp/ time/ volume/ concentration of (e) and (s)
74 of 81
hazards of ph practical
Hazards Wear safety goggles. Amylase solution may cause allergic reactions. Iodine solution is irritant. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
75 of 81
what organ doesnt secrete enzyme
liver
76 of 81
what does the liver produce and store
The liver produces bile. its stored in the gall bladder before released into small intestine
77 of 81
What makes the ph too acidic in the stomach for enzyme to work properly
hydrochloric acid
78 of 81
what neutralises the acidd in small intestine
bile
79 of 81
what does enzyme in small intestine work best in
alkaline conditions
80 of 81
what does bile do in the small iny=tesine
emulsifies fat given a bigger surface area making digestion faster
81 of 81

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are enzyme made of

Back

large protein

Card 3

Front

what are protenins made of

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are Enzymes are required in organisms

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why do we only have enzyme

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Applied Science resources:

See all Applied Science resources »See all Biology B2 resources »