Cell Division and Cellular Organisation

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  • Created by: tsungiex
  • Created on: 16-05-16 21:02
What happens at interphase?
Cell growth and DNA replication
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What happens at the mitotic stage?
Mitosis (cell division making 2 identical cells) and cytokinesis (cell divides cytoplasm).
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What happens at gap phase 1 (G1)?
The cell grows and new organelles and proteins are made.
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What happens at the G1 checkpoint?
Checks that all the chemicals needed for DNA replication are there and checks for any errors in DNA.
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What happens at gap phase 2 (G2)?
The cell continues to grow and proteins needed for cell division are made.
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What happens at the G2 checkpoint?
Checks whether all DNA has been replicated and for any errors. They can then move to mitosis.
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What happens at synthesis stage?
DNA replication ready for mitosis.
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What is a homologous chromosome?
A chromosome with the same genes but with a different combination of alleles.
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What is an allele?
A different version of a gene
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What is meant by the term haploid?
A cell with half the normal number of chromosomes.
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How does crossing over lead to genetic variation?
Crossing over creates a combination of alleles in chromatids. This means that the four daughter cells produced will contain different chromatids with different alleles. This increases genetic variation in offspring.
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How does independent assortment lead to genetic variation?
It is completley random which chromosome goes in each daughter cell in meiosis 1 so there are many different combinations of maternal & paternal chromosomes. The shuffling of chromosomes leads to genetic variation in offspring.
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What is a stem cell?
Undifferentiated cells that are able to develop into differentiated cells.
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What is differentiation?
When a cell becomes specialised for it's job.
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Why do stem cells divide?
To become specialised cells OR to produce more undifferentiated cells.
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How are erythrocytes and neutrophils produced?
In the bone marrow, there are stem cells that divide and differentiate to produce them.
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How are xylem vessels and sieve tube elements produced?
In plants there are stem cells in meristem. They divide and differentiate to produce those two cells.
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How can stem cells help in Alzhiemer's?
The damaged nerve cells in the brain can be replaced by stem cells so that they regrow to become healthy nerve cells.
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What is meant by the term tissue?
A group of cells with a particular function
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What is meant by the term organ?
A group of DIFFERENT tissues that will perform a particular function together.
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What happens when two gametes fuse together?
They form a zygote.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens at the mitotic stage?

Back

Mitosis (cell division making 2 identical cells) and cytokinesis (cell divides cytoplasm).

Card 3

Front

What happens at gap phase 1 (G1)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens at the G1 checkpoint?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens at gap phase 2 (G2)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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