cell division

what are eukaryotic cells
cells that contain a nucleus. these can either be single celled organisms (protozoa) or multicellular organisms (tree, goat)
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what is found in he nucleus
your genetic material (your DNA). half is from your father's sperm the other half is from your mother's ovum.
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what are haploid cells
cells which only contain half of a organism's DNA. eg. gametes
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what are gametes
sec cells (sperm and ova)
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which cells dont have two sets of DNA
gametes and some other cells which have no nucleus (red blood cells)
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what are diploid cells
a cell or nucleus of a cell that has a paired set of chromosomes (half from your mother half from your father)
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how is DNA structured in the cell?
DNA exists in a double helix shape, which is coiled into chromosomes
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how many pairs of chromosomes do humans have and why do we say they come in pairs?
we have 23 pairs of chromosomes, and we say chromosomes come in pairs to remind ourselves that half were inhereted from each of our parents.
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how many chromosomes in a diploid human cell
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what are genes
a section of a chromosome made from DNA that carries the code to make protein which therefore produces a characteristic. because you have to copies of each chromosome you also have two copies of each gene (one from your mum one from your dad)
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what are alleles
two versions of the same gene
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what is a centrometre
a point towards the middle of the chromosome where they seem to pinch inwards. no genes are present at this point.
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what is the difference between a gene and a chromosome
Chromosomes are made up from genes, which are made from DNA.
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what is mitosis
cell replication that produces two identical copies of a diploid cell.
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what happens right before mitosis
before mitosis, during interphase, the chromosomes are replicating themselves.
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what happens in prophase
the cells are condensing (shortening and flattening) and the nucleus is still present which helps make the folowing steps easier.
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what happens in metaphase
the chromosomes align to the centre and the nucleus is no longer present (it has been disassembled)
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what happens in anaphase
the chromosomes are seperated and move to opposite sides of the cell due to spindle fibres
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what happens in telophase
the chromosomes are at opposite ends and new nuclei are forming on each end and are surrounding those chromosomes, so now the cell has 2 nuclei.
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what happens after mitosis
cytokinesis, in which the cell splits in two
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what is a chromatid
a copy of a chromosome during call division
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what are daughter cells
the cell produced during mitosis
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what happens during interphase
the cell is growing and increasing the number of subcellular structures such as ribosomes and mitochondria.
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what is the order of the stages
interphase, mitosis, cytokenisis
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what is PMAT
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
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what is a stem cell
an undifferentiated cell that can develop into one or more types of specialised cells
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what is differentiation
a process in which your cells specialise or adapt for a particular function
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what are embryonic stem cells
in mammals, you have embryonic ste cells. these are present when you are between 1 and 9 weeks old. they can grow into any specialised cell found in the adult organism meaning they ar totipotent. once it has differentiated, it can not change back
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what are adult stem cells
stem cells found in specific parts of the body such as bone marrow. they are used to repair the body if it is injured. they crucially develop into the type of cell found in that location. they can only turn into cells near them, they are multipotent.
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what can some animals do with stem cells that we cant
lizards can shed and later regrow their tail and starfish can grow back their leg. if the severed leg is on the left, it will grow back 4 legs
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what is a meristem
an area of the plant in which rapid cell division occurs normally the tip of a root or shoot.
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how does the fact that plants have stem cells benefit us
this means we can take cuttings in which a small section of the plant, often with leaves, is dipped in rooting poweder which contains plant hormones. this is then planted into the ground and roots start to grow down creating a clone.
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what is the advantage of cutting
we can have a disease resistant plant, and in taking a cutting, we have a clone of that plant.
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how come a cutt plant will not always look the same
due to environmental differentiation in which the environment affects how a plant looks as a animal might have bitten from it or less sun may have shone. how
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how can stem cell research help people in the future?
in can help treat paralysed patients by transplanting grown nerve cells into a severed spinal chord of damaged brain. and it can replace injured or infected organs with grown ones
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what are the problems with stem cell research
it can create many ethical issues
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what are the most useful cells to do stem cell reasearch with and why
embryonic cells as they are totipotent meaning they can develop into any type of cell.
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where do scientists aquire embryonic stem cells to perform reasearch onto
from fertilised ova that are not selected to be put into a womans uterus during IVF. this is an ethical issue as some beleive that a fertilised ovum is a life so using it in research amounts to murder.
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what are the steps in IVF
Matured ova are removed from an ovary in a small operation. They are fertilised outside the body using sperm. The fertilised ova are then implanted back into the woman’s uterus and develop in the same way as non-IVF babies.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is found in he nucleus


your genetic material (your DNA). half is from your father's sperm the other half is from your mother's ovum.

Card 3


what are haploid cells


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Card 4


what are gametes


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Card 5


which cells dont have two sets of DNA


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