Cell Differentiation

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What is differentiation?
The process by which a cell changes to become specialised for its job.
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When do cells become specialised in animal cells and in plant cells?
Animal- Usually at an early stage as it develops. Plant- Most plant cells can specialise at any stage.
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For what reason does differentiation occur in animal cells at a later stage?
Mainly for repairing and replacing cells.
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What are undifferentiated cells called?
Stem Cells
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How are sperm cells adapted?
It has a long tail and streamlined neck (to help swim to the egg), lots of mitochondria (provide the energy needed), it has enzymes in the head (digest through the egg membrane).
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How are nerve cells adapted?
They are long(to cover longer distances), have branched connections at their ends (to connect to other nerve cells).
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How are muscle cells adapted?
They are long (to have space to contract) and have lots of mitochondria (to provide the energy needed).
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How are root hair cells adapted?
The hairs give the plant a large surface area (for better absorption of water and mineral ions).
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How are xylem and phloem cells adapted?
Xylem cells are hollow in the centre and phloem cells have little subcellular structures(stuff can flow through them).
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Card 2

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When do cells become specialised in animal cells and in plant cells?

Back

Animal- Usually at an early stage as it develops. Plant- Most plant cells can specialise at any stage.

Card 3

Front

For what reason does differentiation occur in animal cells at a later stage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are undifferentiated cells called?

Back

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Card 5

Front

How are sperm cells adapted?

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