Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and DNA replication

When cells reproduce via mitosis, what is produced?
2 genetically identical daughter cells, that are also genetically identical to the original cell
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Why do cells need to divide by mitosis?
Replace cells that are lost e.g throughout digestive tract or to increase number of cells for tissue growth
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What are the three stages of the cell cycle?
Interphase (G1 S G2) mitosis and cytokenisis
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What happens in G1?
Growth
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What happens in S?
DNA replication
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What happens in G2?
More growth and preparations for mitosis
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How long is cell cycle for skin cells?
7 days
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How long is cell cycle for intestine cells?
3 days
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What cells don't have a cell cycle?
White and red blood cells and brain cells
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At what point in cell cycle are chromosomes visible?
Mitosis
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What are the four stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
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What happens in Prophase
Nuclear membrane breaks down, chromosomes condense and become visible, centromere already present, spindle fibre start forming from centrioles
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What happens in Metaphase?
Chromosomes line up at equator of cell, spindle fibres attach to centromere
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What happens in Anaphase?
Spindle fibres contract, splitting centromeres in half and pulling chromatids to opposite poles of the cell, centromere half first
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What happens in Telophase?
Chromosomes uncoil at opposite poles of cell, nuclear membrane forms around each chromosme group
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What happens in cytokinesis?
Cytoplasm divide to form two genetically identical daughter cells
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How do you calculate mitotic index?
Number of cells in mitosis/number of cells
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What are DNA molecules physical properties?
Long and linear
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What proteins does DNA wrap around to form chromosomes?
Histone proteins
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Where is DNA stored?
Nucleus of cell
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What stops DNA/Chromosomes being able to leave the nucleus?
Being too large
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What type of molecules is DNA (and RNA)?
Information carrying
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What information does DNA carry and store?
Genetic information
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What is genetic code?
Code for making proteins
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What is a gene?
Coded info on DNA for making one specific protein
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What are the 4 bases in DNA and whater the pairs?
Guanine and cytosine, thymine and adenine
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What sugar is present in DNA?
Deoxyribose (pentose)
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What else is present in the sugar phosphate backbone?
Phosphate group on the top left carbon in deoxyribose sugar
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What element do each four bases contain?
Nitrogen
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What forms a nucleotide?
Phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and nitrogen containing base
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What bonds creates polynucleotide strands?
phosphodiester bonds
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What bond holds polynucleotide strands together by bases?
Hydrogen bonds
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What is the benefit of the sugarphosphate backbone?
protection
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Why can DNA make an exact copy of itself?
Specific complementary base pairing
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What is the first step of DNA replication?
Enzyme DNA helicase unzips and breaks hydrogen bonds in DNA strand, leaving two polynucleotide strans
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What happens at stage 2 of DNA replication?
A new nucleotide with the specific complementary base has an affinity to the newly exposed bases of the polynucleotide strands and new hydrogen bonds are formed
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What enzyme joins the new nucleotides together, forming a new sugarphosphate backbone?
DNA polymerase
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How many new strands of DNA are there?
2
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Each new strand of DNA has one template strand still. True or false?
True
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Are the daughter strands EXACTLY identical?
Yes
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What is this method of replication called?
Semi-conservative method of DNA replication
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why do cells need to divide by mitosis?

Back

Replace cells that are lost e.g throughout digestive tract or to increase number of cells for tissue growth

Card 3

Front

What are the three stages of the cell cycle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens in G1?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens in S?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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