Cell biology

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  • Created by: leo1223
  • Created on: 02-05-18 19:41
Define prokaryote
an organism that does not have its genetic material enclosed within a distinct nucleus
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Define eukaryote
an organism that has genetic material enclosed within a distinct nucleus
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Define binary fission
Binary fission is a simple cell division used by bacterial cells
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What two factors are needed for bacteria cells to multiply every 20 minutes?
Enough nutrients and a suitable temperature
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What would prevent condensation from occurring in a petri dish?
If the petri dish is stored upside down condensation will be unable to contaminate the agar surface
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Describe the differences between a light microscope and an electron microscope?
The electron microscope provides a greater resolution, more magnification than light microscopes however they are expensive where as light microscopes are relatively inexpensive and have a greater resolution than the human eye
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Whats the equation for calculating magnification?
Magnification = Size of image / Size of real object
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What are all the features of a animal cell?
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes
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What are all the features of a plant cell?
Nucleus, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Cytoplasm, Permanent vacuole
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What are all the features of a bacterial cell?
Plasmids, Chromosomal DNA, Flagella, Cell wall, Cytoplasm, Ribosomes, Cell membrane
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Explain the process of diffusion?
Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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Explain the process of osmosis?
Osmosis is the diffusion of water from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane
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Explain the process of active transport?
Active transport moves substances against the concentration gradient from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
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What are two precautions that should be taken to stop a bacteria culture getting contaminated in a petri dish?
The petri dish and agar should be sterilised and the petri dish should be stored upside down once the petri dish has been sealed
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Name the process that replaces and repairs cells?
mitosis
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Define what a stem cell is?
A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that is able to differentiate to form different types of cells
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Name two places where stem cells can be found in humans?
Embryos and adult bone marrow
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Name two uses of stem cells?
Stem cells can be used to produce large numbers of identical crops with special adaptations and can also be used to treat patients with diabetes and paralysis
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What are the disadvantages of stem cells?
The disadvantages of stem cells are that they are considered unethical by some and have risks such as the transfer of viral infections
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Where can stem cells be found in plants?
In plants stem cells can be found in areas know as meristems
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Name three factors that affect the rate of diffusion?
the difference in concentrations (concentration gradient), the temperature and the surface area of the membrane
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Explain what permeability is?
The ability of a substance to allow another substance to pass through it
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What two factors are required for active transport to take place?
For active transport to occur substances must move from against the concentration gradient and also must have energy to do so
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Card 2

Front

Define eukaryote

Back

an organism that has genetic material enclosed within a distinct nucleus

Card 3

Front

Define binary fission

Back

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Card 4

Front

What two factors are needed for bacteria cells to multiply every 20 minutes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What would prevent condensation from occurring in a petri dish?

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