Cell Biology

  • Created by: sshore233
  • Created on: 21-03-18 17:21
What are Eukaryotic cells?
Complex cells like animal and plant.
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What are Prokaryotic cells?
Small and simple cells like bacteria.
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What are the different parts of cells called?
Subcellular structures.
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What do animal cells contain?
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria and Ribosomes.
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What do plant cells contain?
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Cell Wall, Vacuole and Chloroplasts.
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What does the Nucleus do?
Contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell.
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What does the Cytoplasm do?
Gel-like substance containing enzymes so chemical reactions can take place.
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What does the Cell Membrane do?
Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out.
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What does the Mitochondria do?
Where the Aerobic Respiration takes place to give the cell energy.
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What do the Ribosomes do?
Contains the proteins.
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What does the Cell Wall do?
It's made of Cellulose, which supports and strengthens the cell.
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What does the Permanent Vacuole do?
Contains the cell sap, a solution of sugar and salt.
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What do the Chloroplasts do?
Contains Chlorophyll which absorbs light needed for photosynthesis to make food for the cell.
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What do Bacteria cells contain?
Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall and rings of DNA called Plasmids.
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How do Light Microscopes work?
They use light and lenses to magnify individual cells.
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How do Electron Microscopes work?
They use electrons to magnify much smaller cell structures.
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Magnification equals...
image size DIVIDED by real size. (They must be in the same units)
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What is Differentiation?
The process where a cell changes to become specialised for its job.
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What are stem cells?
Undifferentiated cells.
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Sperm Cells are specialised for...
Reproduction.
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How are Sperm Cells adapted for their job?
Long tail/Streamlined head to swim. Lots of Mitochondria for energy. Carries enzymes to digest through the egg's cell membrane.
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Nerve Cells are specialised for...
Carrying Electrical Signals around the body.
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How are Nerve Cells adapted for their job?
Long to cover more distance. Branched endings to connect with other cells.
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Muscle Cells are specialised for...
Contracting Quickly.
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How are Muscle Cells adapted for their job?
Long so there's space to contract. Lots of mitochondria to generate energy.
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Root Hair Cells are specialised for...
Absorbing Water and Minerals.
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How are Root Hair Cells adapted for their job?
Large surface area to absorb more from the soil.
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Phloem and Xylem Cells are specialised for...
Transporting substances, such as food and water, around plants.
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How are Xylem Cells adapted for their job?
Hollow so stuff can flow through them.
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How are Phloem Cells adapted for their job?
Very few subcellular structures so stuff can flow through them.
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What are Chromosomes?
Coiled up lengths of DNA molecules.
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What are genes?
Things that control the development of different characteristics.
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How many pairs of chromosomes do we have?
23.
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Mitosis: Step 1...
DNA is spread out in long strings.
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Mitosis: Step 2...
The cell increases its amount of mitochondria and ribosomes.
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Mitosis: Step 3...
The cell duplicates its DNA so there's one copy for each new cell. Each 'arm' is the same.
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Mitosis: Step 4...
The chromosomes line up at the centre of the cell and are pulled apart.
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Mitosis: Step 5...
The cell divides.
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Mitosis: Step 6...
The cell divides.
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How many daughter cells does Mitosis produce?
2.
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Mitosis makes...
Identical cells. (To each other and the parent.)
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Stem Cells are found in...
Embryos and Bone Marrow.
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Diffusion is...
the Spreading out of particles from an area of HIGHER concentration, to an area of LOWER concentration
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What states does diffusion take place in and why?
Solutions and Gases because these particles are free to move about
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Temperature on diffusion rate
A higher temp= faster rate because the particles have more energy so move around faster
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Osmosis is...
the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration.
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Active Transport is...
The process of substances being absorbed AGAINST a concentration gradient (e.g lower to higher)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are Prokaryotic cells?

Back

Small and simple cells like bacteria.

Card 3

Front

What are the different parts of cells called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do animal cells contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do plant cells contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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