Cell biology 10S.1

What is cancer?
accumulation of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities
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A tumor can be..
Benign or malignant
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encapsuled, low mitotic rate, well differentiated and non-invasive
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non encapsulated, high mitotic rate, poor differentiation and invasive
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Classification of cancer
Cell and tissue type or site of origin
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Development of cancer happens
through repeated rounds of proliferation and mutations
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Unlike homeostasis, a tumor can result from
increase cell division and normal apoptosis or normal devision and decreased apoptosis
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Features of cancer cells
uncontrolled growth, hospitable environment and invade across basal lamina
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Warburg effect
a shift in energy production from oxidative phosphrylation to glycolysis. leads to increased access to energy, increased blood volume.
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hereditary cancer
one damaged gene is inherited
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speradic cancer
1 damaged to 2 damaged genes
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causes of mutations
radiation, therapy drugs, chemicals, infections and age
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a gene in which the mutation has caused a gain of function (normally dominant)
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tumour suppressor
a gene in which the mutation has caused a loss of function (normally recessive)
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growth factors, growth factor receptors, intracellular signalling molecules, transcription factors and cell cycle regulators
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is a MAPK that upon activation enters the nucleus and phosphorylates and activates transcription factors AP1 and myc
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is made of 2 proteins; fos and jun. It activates the expression of CCND1 which codes for cyclin D! (cell cycle regulator)
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intrinsic regulation
orchestrates the sequence of events to ensure faithful replication of DNA and distribution into daughter cells
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extrinsic regulation
allows cell cycle to repond to external cues that promote cell growth and division and allows cell cycle to be inhibited when new cells are not needed
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is cancer a genetic disease?
yes! always but not always inherited
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A tumor can be..


Benign or malignant

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Classification of cancer


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