Causes of Depression

HideShow resource information
What is depression?
it's a mood disorder which causes depressive states of emotion as well as manic ones- 5% of getting depression (1% unipolar)
1 of 17
What did McGuffin et al (1996) find? What does this research suggest?
concordance rates among MZ twins are 46% and DZ twins 20%- suggests that genetics play some role in causing depression
2 of 17
What did Gershon (1990) find?
the rates of depression for individuals with a first degree relative with depression is two-three times higher than in the general population
3 of 17
What is the major issue with drawing conclusions from family and twin studies?
the concordance rates are not 100% so there must be other factors- environmental factors may contribute to the concordance rates & it ignores social factors
4 of 17
What did Wender's (1986) study find?
a biological relative of adopted sufferers of depression are seven times more likely than the adoptive relatives to get depression
5 of 17
Are adoption studies generalisable to the general population?
no- because to be adopted is a stressful situation that can trigger depression
6 of 17
How do neurotransmitters cause depression?
symptoms of depression can be linked to individuals with low levels of serotonin (he 'feel good' neurotransmitter)- anti-depressant drug prozac confirms this relationship
7 of 17
What did Delgado et al (1990) find?
gave ppts a special diet which lowered their levels of serotonin, found that this caused them to show signs of depression
8 of 17
How does Freud (1917) explain depression?
says that it is a type of grief e.g. losing a job or a loved one can trigger depression- you aim your anger at yourself which causes the feelings of worthlessness- can appear after every stressful life event
9 of 17
Is there any supporting evidence for Freud's theory?
Shah and Waller (2000) found that many people who suffer from depression describe their parents as affectionless
10 of 17
Why might Shah and Waller's study lack reliability and validity?
memories can sometimes be false (reconstructive) and their answers may be biased due to demand characteristics e.g. social desirability bias
11 of 17
What weaknesses are there to Freud's theory?
not falsifiable- can't be proven right or wrong, ignores any biological explanations
12 of 17
What are Beck's negative schemas?
Beck's theory involves negative thoughts about yourself which are the reinforced by other people e.g. your parents- this negative schema then stays with you and makes you think negatively about yourself
13 of 17
What is Beck's cognitive triad?
a continuous cycle where you have negative thoughts about yourself, negative views about the future and negative views of the world- this is a very hard cycle to break and this is what he thinks causes depression
14 of 17
Is there any supporting evidence for Beck's theory?
Nolen-Hoeksma et al (1992) said that negative attribution style in older children can be used to predict depression in the future- only if they suffer from stressful life events- diathesis stress model
15 of 17
Is there any evidence against Beck's theory?
Lewisohn (1981) found that there was no relationship between negative thoughts and future depression
16 of 17
What is the diathesis stress model?
a combination of biological, psychological and social factors
17 of 17

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did McGuffin et al (1996) find? What does this research suggest?

Back

concordance rates among MZ twins are 46% and DZ twins 20%- suggests that genetics play some role in causing depression

Card 3

Front

What did Gershon (1990) find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the major issue with drawing conclusions from family and twin studies?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Wender's (1986) study find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Abnormality resources »