General terminology in classification, language frameworks, lexis and semantics

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The medium of communication, for example speech or writing
Mode
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A broad way of defining modes, which suggests that their qualities are strictly opposites, for example writing is formal, speech is informal
Oppositional View
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A way of representing differences by placing texts along a line showing degrees of various features
Continuum
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A "best-fit" example of a particular category
Prototype
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A sub-diision of mode, such as poetry, drama and conversation
Sub-mode
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The category or type of a text
Genre
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A form of text such as a play, short story and recipe
Type
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Texts that combine a word, image and sound to produce a meaning, for example a children's storybook that includes images to support the text
Multimodal texts
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The temporal and spatial situations in which a text is produced or received
Context
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The situations in which a text is read and those factors that might influence its writing
Context of reception
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The situation in which a text is produced and those factors that might influence its writing
Context of production
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Any reader who engages with the text
Actual reader
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The kind of reader a text producer has in mind then writing and who might be expected to "follow" the author's point of view
Implied reader
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A constructed image of the writer a reader may have in mind
Implied writer
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The "real" person behind the text
Actual writer
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The reason a text is produced
Purpose
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A text with more than one purpose
Multi-purpose
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A text with two clear and defined purposes
Dual-purpose
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The main reason a text has been produced
Primary purpose
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A secondary (and sometimes more subtle) reason
Secondary purpose
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An individual's style of speaking or 'linguistic fingerprint'
Idiolect
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A defined use of language as a result of membership of a social group
Sociolect
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A group with shared values and approaches to reading
Discourse community
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A variety of language appropriate to a particular purpose and context
Register
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The general purpose of an act of communication
Field
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The relationship between the participants in a conversation or between text producer and receiver
Tenor
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The language variety of a geographical region or social background, revealed by a variation in lexical and grammatical terms
Dialect
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The specific way words are pronounced according to geographical region
Accent
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A universally accepted dialect of English that carries a degree of prestige
Standard English
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The projection of a certain way of thinking about a particular individual, group or institution through the use of language
Representation
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A set of lexical items and grammatical constructions particular to an institution or occupational group
Specialist register
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Specialist terminology that may exclude others
Jargon
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An established set of informal terms used in everyday language
Colloquialism
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Colloquial language that is inventive and particular to individuals or groups
Slang
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A set of technical terms used to describe how language operates
Metalanguage
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The framework that deals with the vocabulary system of a language
Lexis
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The framework that deals with meaning and how that is generated within texts
Semantics
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The term used to describe how a text is logically structured to create a coherent sense of meaning
Textual cohesion
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A pronoun that usually occurs as the actor in a verbal process
Subject pronoun
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A pronoun that usually appears as being affected by a verb process
Object pronoun
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A pronoun that demonstrates ownership
Possessive pronoun
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Words that carry explicit meanings and represent word classes that are open to new additions and derivations
Lexical words
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Words that have less explicit meanings and serve to highlight relationships between other words
Functional words
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Describing actions or events
Material processes
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Describing states of being, identification or attributes
Relational processes
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Describing perception, thoughts or speech
Mental processes
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Verbs where the situation described by the verb process changes over time
Dynamic verbs
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Verbs that describes a state of affairs rather than an action
Stative verbs
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The simple form of an adjective, serving to modify
Base form
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The form for comparing two items
Comparative
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Adjectives inflected with -est or combined with 'most' are in this form
Superlative
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A measure of how well a text fits together as a whole its internal logic and construction
Cohesion
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When lexical items replace those already mentioned or about to be mentioned
Referencing
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Referencing back to an already stated lexical item
Anaphoric referencing
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Referencing forwards to an as yet undisclosed lexical item
Cataphoric referencing
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The replacing of one set of lexical items for another
Substitution
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The missing out of a word or words in a sentence
Ellipsis
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A strict 'dictionary' meaning of a lexical item
Denotation
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An associated, symbolic meaning relying on culturally shared conventions
Connotation
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Lexical items that are similar in range of meaning and properties
Lexical field
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Words with very similar semantic value
Synonymy
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Words with opposite semantic value
Antonymy
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The term for the hierarchical structure that exists between lexical items
Hyponymy
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A socially acceptable word or phrase used to avoid talking about something potentially distasteful
Euphemism
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A hard, 'to-the-point' and perhaps taboo term, sometimes used for a dark effect
Dysphemism
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Truly opposite antonyms
Complementary
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Antonyms that are not exact opposites but can be considered in terms of degree of quality
Gradable
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A 'lower' word in the hyponymic chain; a more specific lexical term
Subordinate
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A 'higher' word in the hyponymic chain; a more general lexical item
Superordinate
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The inappropriately vague, rather general answer to a question
Under-specificity
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The giving of an inappropriately too specific answer, sometimes with absurd effects
Over-specificity
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The way in which abstract terms are mapped on to physical entities through an underlying conceptual structure
Conceptual metaphor
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A broad way of defining modes, which suggests that their qualities are strictly opposites, for example writing is formal, speech is informal

Back

Oppositional View

Card 3

Front

A way of representing differences by placing texts along a line showing degrees of various features

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

A "best-fit" example of a particular category

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

A sub-diision of mode, such as poetry, drama and conversation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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