Case Studies and Research into Memory

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What happened to H.M?
Damage to hippocampi/medial temporal lobes. Severe anterograde amnesia (Milner et al, 1968)
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Hippocampal memories are consolidated into the neocortex and become hippocampal independent
Marr, 1971
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Episodic memory and the hippocampus
Zola-Morgan et al 1987. – CA1 of hippocampus lesions lead to anterograde amnesia
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Alzheimers patients and the MTL/episodic memory
Hyman et al – Alzheimers patients show early signs of amnesia when they have their first lesions in the MTL. Also Weintraub et al, 2012
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Episodic memory and the mamillary bodies
Press et al – Korsakoff’s patients – damage to diencephalon and mammillary bodies have varied amnesia
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Episodic memory and confabulation
Burgess and Shallice – Frontal lobe damage leads to confabulated memories.
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Episodic memory and impaired source memory
Janowsky et al – frontal lobe damage leads to impaired source memory
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Episodic memory and interference
Shimamura - frontal lobe damage leads to stronger interference
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Semantic Memory and Left Temporal Damage
Warrington, 1975. LEFT temporal damage – visual agnosia.
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Semantic Memory and Left MEDIAL Temporal Damage
Warrington and Shallice, 1984. Left medial temporal damage – catergory-specific amodal agnosia.
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Lateral temporal lobe areas and catergory specific deficits
• Damasio, 1996 o Temporal pole – person naming o Left middle inferior – animal naming o Posterior inferior – tool naming
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Semantic dementia
Left anterior temporal atrophy is associated with semantic dementia. Hodges, 2001
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Working memory and the lateral frontal lobes
Milner, 1963. Patients with frontal lobe damage have difficulties maipulating information in working memory tasks
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Workign memory and Age-related Frontal-Striatal decline
working memory deficits (Gabrieli, 1996)
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Working memory and lateral parietal lobes
Lesions of Left Supramarginal / Inferior Parietal Cortex -> auditory-verbal maintenance deficit, eg. KF (Warrington & Shallice, 1969)
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Working memory and the parietal cortex
Lesion of Right Inferior Parietal Cortex -> visuospatial maintenance deficit, eg. ELD (Hanley et al., 1991)
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Priming deficits
right occipital lesions have no perceptual priming. Gabrielli et al, 1995
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Proceedural memory deficits
huntington's patients had impaired rotary pursuit, gabrielli, and serial reaction task, willingham and koroshetz
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Conditioning and the cerebellum
Delay conditioning is abolished in cerebellar lesions, daum et al 1993
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Conditioning and the amygdala
fear conditioning is impaired following amygdala resection - LeBar, 1995
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SenseCam Study
Berry et al, 2006. Events reviewed with sensecam more resistant to decline tan those rehearsed with a written diary
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Card 2

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Hippocampal memories are consolidated into the neocortex and become hippocampal independent

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Marr, 1971

Card 3

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Episodic memory and the hippocampus

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Card 4

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Alzheimers patients and the MTL/episodic memory

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Card 5

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Episodic memory and the mamillary bodies

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