Research Studies

Brief description of the following studies:

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

Jacobs (1887)

Miller (1956)

Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)

Peterson and Peterson (1959)

Baddeley (1966)

Baddeley and Hitch (1974)

Loftus and Palmer (1974)

Loftus and Palmer (1974)

Deffenbacher et al (2004)

Christianson and Hubinette (1993)

Loftus et al (1987)

Steblay (1992)

Loftus et al (1987)

Kohnken et al (1999)

Stein and Memon (2006)

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Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
Saw memory as a flow of information through an information processing system - Multi-store model of memory
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Jacobs (1887)
Capacity of STM - Average span of 9.3 digits or 7.3 letters
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Miller (1956)
Capacity of STM - "Magic number 7 plus or minus 2" - Most recall 5-9 bits of information
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Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Duration of STM - Tend to remember words from the beginning (primary effect) and the end (recency effect)
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Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Participants counted back in 3s until told to stop, asked to recall 3 letters, repeated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 intervals. Findings: 90% recall at 3s, 2% at 18s.
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Baddeley (1966)
Asked to recall a list of words, 1st list was acoustically similar, 2nd not, 3rd semantically simmiliar, 4th not. Conclusion: STM is encoded acoustically, LTM is encoded semantically.
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Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
"Dual task" technique - able to reasoning task and digital span task, only making a few errors. Conclusion: We have more than 1 store, or a higher capacity than origanlly thought - WMM created.
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Loftus and Palmer (1974)
To see if misleading info distored EWT accuracy - participents given questionare with either 'smashed','collided', 'hit', 'bumped' or 'contacted'. Findings: Most violent word = highest estimated speed.
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Loftus and Palmer (1974)
To see if post event info can alter memory - participants given same different words. 1 week later, were asked about broken glass
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Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
"Dual task" technique - able to reasoning task and digital span task, only making a few errors. Conclusion: We have more than 1 store, or a higher capacity than origanlly thought - WMM created.
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Deffenbacher et al (2004)
Meta-analysis (18 studies), studied effect of anixety on recall. Findings: High anixety
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Christianson and Hubinette (1993)
Studied 58 real witnesses to bank robberies. Findings: High anixety = more accurate, more remem
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Loftus et al (1987)
Weapon focus effect - 2 conditions, participants hear an argument next door. 1st - man appears holding a pen with grease up arms, 2nd - more heated argument, man appear
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Steblay (1992)
Meta-analysis. Findings: presence of a weapon = reduces chances of witness correctly identify
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Kohnken et al (1999)
Meta-analysis (53 studies). Findings: 34% increase in amount of information gathered from cogni
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Kebbel and Wagstaff (1996)
Argued it was not just 1 procedure. Findings: not all techniques are
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Stein and Memon (2006)
Tested in Brazil - produced forensically rich information. Findings: p
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Stein and Memon (2006)
Tested in Brazil - produced forensically rich information. Findings: proved to be a good approuch oppossed to the normal interrogative and torture used in Brazil.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Capacity of STM - Average span of 9.3 digits or 7.3 letters

Back

Jacobs (1887)

Card 3

Front

Capacity of STM - "Magic number 7 plus or minus 2" - Most recall 5-9 bits of information

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Duration of STM - Tend to remember words from the beginning (primary effect) and the end (recency effect)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Participants counted back in 3s until told to stop, asked to recall 3 letters, repeated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 intervals. Findings: 90% recall at 3s, 2% at 18s.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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