Case Studies

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Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
Saw memory as a flow of information through an information processing system - Multi-store model of memory
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Jacobs (1887)
Capacity of STM - Average span of 9.3 digits or 7.3 letters
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Miller (1956)
Capacity of STM - "Magic number 7 plus or minus 2" - Most recall 5-9 bits of information
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Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Duration of STM - Tend to remember words from the beginning (primary effect) and the end (recency effect)
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Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Participants counted back in 3s until told to stop. Then asked to recall 3 letters. Repeated at 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 second intervals. 90% recall at 3 second. 2% recall at 18 second. CONCLUSION: When rehersal prevented, STM lasts for 20 seconds at most
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Baddeley (1966)
STUDY: Influence of acoustic and semantic sim
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Baddeley (1966)
STUDY: Influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on STM and LTM. PROCEDURE:
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Baddeley (1966)
STUDY: Influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on STM and LTM. PROCEDURE: Shown a list of words, 1 = Acoustically similar, 2 = Dissimilar
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Baddeley (1966)
STUDY: Influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on STM and LTM. PROCEDURE: Shown a list of words, 1 = Acoustically similar, 2 = Dissimilar, 3 = Semantically similar, 4 = Dissimilar. CONCLUSION: STM is encoded acoustically, LTM is
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Baddeley (1966)
STUDY: Influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on STM and LTM. PROCEDURE: Shown a list of words, 1 = Acoustically similar, 2 = Dissimilar, 3 = Semantically similar, 4 = Dissimilar. CONCLUSION: STM is encoded acoustically, LTM semantically.
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Baddeley (1966)
STUDY: Influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on STM and LTM. PROCEDURE: Shown a list of words, 1 = Acoustically similar, 2 = Dissimilar, 3 = Semantically similar, 4 = Dissimilar. CONCLUSION: STM is encoded acoustically, LTM semantically.
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Card 2

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Capacity of STM - Average span of 9.3 digits or 7.3 letters

Back

Jacobs (1887)

Card 3

Front

Capacity of STM - "Magic number 7 plus or minus 2" - Most recall 5-9 bits of information

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Duration of STM - Tend to remember words from the beginning (primary effect) and the end (recency effect)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Participants counted back in 3s until told to stop. Then asked to recall 3 letters. Repeated at 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 second intervals. 90% recall at 3 second. 2% recall at 18 second. CONCLUSION: When rehersal prevented, STM lasts for 20 seconds at most

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