Care of Hydration

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  • Created by: Beckyrose
  • Created on: 19-02-14 05:46
What is 'Neutral Balance'?
Input = Output
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What is 'Positive Balance'?
Input is greater than Output = hyrdration
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What is 'Negative Balance'?
Output is greater than Input = dehydration
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What is 'Intracellular'?
In the cells
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What is 'Extracellular'?
Outside the cells
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What is 'Interstitial'?
In the tissues
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What are reasons for loss of fluid (making a negative balance)?
Lungs (water vapor) skin (sweating) urine & feces, diarrhea/vomiting, hemorrhage, meds/diuretic
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What is 'Diffusion'?
Movement of molecules from a high conc to low
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What is 'Osmosis'?
Diffusion of molecules across a selectively permeable membrane
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What is 'Active Transport'?
movement UP a conc gradient - requires energy
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What is 'Flow Rate'?
the vol of fluid passing a point at any given period of time - it is dependent on the pressure pushing fluid along & the amount of resistance slowing it
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What are some factors that cause 'Pessure Gradients'?
Gravity: lift an IV bag, fluid flows faster, Atmospheric pressure: shift from high to low pressure = pull (e.g into a syringe), Hyrdostatic pressure: force of fluid against an outside surface (pressure inside caps force particles out)
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What are factors that cause 'Resistance'?
Viscosity, tubing texture, length and diameter
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What is a 'Solvent'?
any liquid that other subs can be dissolved in
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What is a 'Solute'?
A dissolved sub in a solution
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What is a 'Crystalloid Solution'?
Solute particles small enough to pass through an animal membrane
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What is a 'Colloid Solution'?
A solution in which the molecules of the solute form large sized solute particles - x easily pass thru semi permeable, they help to maintain level of h20 in blood
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What is an 'Isotonic' solution?
The conc of solutes and water is equal in the solution and the cell - equal on inside and outside. Has osmolarity same as blood.
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What is an 'Hypotonic' solution?
Has LOWER solute conc & so HIGHER water conc than the cell - so has LOWER osmolarity than blood = fluid will leave hyptonic sol to go to area of higher solute conc
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What is a 'Hypertonic' solution?
Has HIGHER solute conc & LOWER water conc - has osmolarity higher than blood = so it will leave to go to a conc
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What are some reasons for administration of IV? (requires drs orders)
To restore and maintain fluid & electrolyte balance, for hydration and nutrition, for medications
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What is the formula for calculating drop rates in hrs?
Volume (mls) /time (hrs) x drops per ml/mintues (60)
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What is the formula for calculating the drop rate of IV less than 1 hr duration?
Volume (mls) x drops per ml/time (mintues)
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What are some complications that can arise with IV?
Phlebitis (inflammation of the vein), occlusion (obstructions ie blood clots), leakage of IV fluids, infection
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What can be done if inflammation or infection occurs?
remove the IV, if continued therapy is needed, restart another IV in a different site or determine another route for medical therapy.
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What are LOCAL complications of IV?
Thrombosis, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis
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What are SYSTEMIC complications of IV?
Emblosism, hematoma, systemic infection, allergic reaction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is 'Positive Balance'?

Back

Input is greater than Output = hyrdration

Card 3

Front

What is 'Negative Balance'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is 'Intracellular'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is 'Extracellular'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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