Cardiovascular system

  • Created by: katewells
  • Created on: 03-04-17 11:05
What is the cardiovascular system made up of?
Heart, blood vessels, blood
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What are the 2 separate circuits of the cardiovascular system?
Pulmonary, systematic
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What is the pulmonary circuit?
Circulation of blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and pulmonary vein back to the heart
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What is the systematic circuit?
Circulation of blood through the aorta to the body and vena cava back to the heart
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What does the pulmonary circuit carry?
Deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart
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What does the systematic circuit carry?
Oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood back to the heart
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What is the heart protected by?
Sternum and ribs
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What is the heart divided into two by?
Septum
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Role of the left side of the heart?
Thicker muscular wall which can contract with more force to circulate oxygenated blood from lungs through systematic circuit to muscle and organs
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Role of the right side of the heart?
Contracts to circulate deoxygenated blood from body through pulmonary circuit to the lungs
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Path of blood from the left side of the heart?
Oxygenated at the lungs, pulmonary view, left atria, AV valve (bicuspid), left ventricle, aorta, oxygenated blood to muscle and organs
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Path of blood from the right side of the heart?
Deoxygenated blood from muscles and organs, vena cava, rich atria, AV valve (tricuspid), right ventricle, pulmonary artery, deoxygenated blood to lungs
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What is the cardiac cycle?
Myogenic
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What does myogenic mean?
A capacity of the heart to generate its own electrical impulse which causes cardiac muscle to contract
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Order of the conduction system?
SA node, AV node, Bundle of his, bundle branches, purkyne fibres
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What does the SA node do?
Generates electrical impulse, fires through atria walls causing contraction
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What does the AV node do?
Collects impulse, delays allowing atria to finish contracting then releases to bundle of his
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What does the Bundle of his do?
Splits the impulse in two, ready to be distributed through each separate ventricle
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What do Bundle branches do?
Carry impulse to base of ventricle
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What do Purkyne fibres do?
Distribute impulse through the ventricle walls causing contraction
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What is diastole?
Relaxation phase of cardiac muscle where chambers fill with blood
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What is systole?
Contraction phase of cardiac muscle where blood is forcefully ejected into aorta and pulmonary artery
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Structure of the cardiac cycle?
Diastole, atrial systole, ventricular systole
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Explain diastole phase of the cardiac cycle?
Atria then ventricle relaxes, they expand drawing blood into the atria, pressure in atria increases opening AV valves, blood enters ventricles, SL valves closed to prevent blood from leaving heart
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Explain atrial systole phase of the cardiac cycle?
Atria contracts, forcing remaining blood into ventricles
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Explain ventricular systole phase of the cardiac cycle?
Ventricles contract, increasing pressure closing AV valves to prevent back flow to atria, SL valves forced open as blood ejected from ventricles to aorta and pulmonary artery
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What is heart rate?
Number of times the heart beats per minute
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What is stroke volume?
Volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle per beat
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What is cardiac output?
Volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle per minute
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What does Bradycardia mean?
Resting heart rate below 60bpm
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How do you calculate maximum heart rate?
220-age
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What is the average resting heart rate?
72bpm
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Sub-max heart rate?
100-130bpm
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What is the average resting stroke volume?
70ml
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Sub-max stroke volume?
100-120ml
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Maximal stroke volume?
100-120ml
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Equation for working out cardiac output?
HRxSV
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What is the average resting cardiac output?
5l/min
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Sub-max cardiac output?
10-15l/min
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Maximal cardiac output?
20-30l/min
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What 2 factors is stroke volume dependant on?
Venous return and Ventricular elasticity/contractility
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What is sub-maximal?
Low-moderate intensity of exercise within performers aerobic capacity
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What is maximal?
High intensity of exercise above a performers aerobic capacity that will induce fatigue
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What is the Frank-Starling mechanism?
Increased venous return leads to an increased stroke volume, due an increased stretch of the ventricle walls and therefore force of attraction
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What is the autonomic nervous system?
Involuntarily regulates heart rate and determines firing rate of SA node
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Where is the CCC found?
Medulla oblongata
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What is the cardiac control centre?
Receives information from the sensory nerves and sends direction through motor nerves to change HR
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What are the 3 types of neural control?
Chemoreceptors, propioreceptors, baroreceptors
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What do chemoreceptors detect?
Chemical changes in the blood stream
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What do proprioreceptors detect?
Located in muscles, tendons and joints inform of motor activity
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What do baroreceptors detect?
Increased blood pressure
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What are the 2 types of intrinsic control?
Temperature change, venous return
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How does temperature change effect the blood?
Viscosity, speed of nerve transmission
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What does hormonal control effect?
Adrenaline and noradrenaline released from adrenal glands increasing force of ventricular contraction and increasing spread of electrical activity through heart
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What are the 3 types of control mechanisms in the CCC?
Neural, intrinsic, hormonal
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What is the CCC responsible for?
Heart rate regulation
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What is the sympathetic nervous system?
Part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for increasing HR
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What is the parasympathetic nervous system?
Part of autonomic nervous system responsible for decreasing HR
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What are the 3 functions of the blood?
Transport nutrients, protect and fight disease, homeostasis
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What are the 5 types of blood vessels?
Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, venules
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Where do arteries and arterioles transport oxygenated blood to?
From heart to muscles and organs
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What happens to the blood flow once subdividing into arterioles?
Slows
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Structure of arteries?
Large layers of smooth muscle and elastic tissue to cushion and smooth pulsating blood flow
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Structure of arterioles?
Larger layer of smooth muscle allowing both vessels to vasodilator and vasoconstrictor to regulate blood flow and control blood pressure, ring of smooth muscle surrounding the entry of a capillary sphincters, dilating and constricting to regulate
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Function of capillaries?
Bring blood slowly not close contact with the muscle and organ cells from gaseous exchange
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Structure of capilliaries?
Composed of single layer of cells, thin enough to allow gas, nutrient and waster exchange
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Role of veins and venules?
To transport deoxygenated blood from muscles and organs back to the heart
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Where are venues located?
Leaving the capillary bed reconnect to form veins
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Structure of veins and venules?
Small layer of smooth muscle allowing them to venodilate and venoconstrict to maintain slow flow of blood towards the heart
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Why do veins have one way pocket valves?
To prevent back flow of blood due to gravity
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What are the 5 mechanisms for venous return?
Pocket valves, smooth muscle, gravity, muscle pump, respiratory pump
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What is blood pooling?
Accumulation of blood in the veins due to gravitational pull and lack of venous return
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What is venous return?
The return of blood to the heart through the veils and veins back to the right atrium against gravity
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What is active recovery?
Low-intensity activity post exercise to maintain elevated heart and breathing rate
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2 differences of cardiac output from rest to exercise?
Volume and where it is sent
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During exercise where is oxygen and nutrient-rich blood required?
Around organs
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What is the vascular-shunt mechanism?
The redistribution of cardiac output around the body from rest to exercise which increases the percentage of blood flow to the skeletal muscle
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How much blood flow is required at the skeletal muscles during maximal effort?
88%
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What are arterioles?
Blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the arteries to the capillary beds, which can vasoconstrictor to regulate blood flow
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What are pre-capillary sphincters?
Rings of smooth muscle at the junction between arterioles and capillaries, which can dilate or constrict blood flow through the capillary bed
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Why is there a higher percentage of cardiac output to the organs than the muscles?
Arterioles to organs vasoldilate while to the muscles vasoconstrict and pre-capillary sphincters dilate allowing more blood flow to organ cells, constrict to the muscle cells
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What happens to cardiac output distribution during exercise?
Dilate to the muscles and constrict to the organs
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What is the vasomotor control centre?
Control centre in the medulla oblongata responsible for cardiac output distribution
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What is vasomotor tone?
The partial state of smooth muscle constriction in the arterial walls
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What does the VCC alter levels of and why?
Stimulation sent to the arterioles and pre-capillary sphincters at different sites in the body
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Where does the VCC receive information from?
Chemoreceptors, baroreceptors (pressure change in the arterial walls)
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What happens when sympathetic stimulation is increased by the VCC?
Arterioles vasoconstrict and pre-capillary sphincters to limit blood flow to muscles during rest
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What happens when sympathetic stimulation is decreased by the VCC?
Arterioles and pre-capillary sphincters vasodilator to increase blood flow to muscles during exercise
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Card 2

Front

What are the 2 separate circuits of the cardiovascular system?

Back

Pulmonary, systematic

Card 3

Front

What is the pulmonary circuit?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the systematic circuit?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the pulmonary circuit carry?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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