Carbohydrates and Lipids

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 21-04-15 20:42
what are the 3 functions of a carbohydrate?
1. energy store, 2. energy source (released from glucose in respiration), 3.structure
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what elements are found in carbohydrates?
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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what are the properties common to all monosaccharides ad disaccharides?
1. sweet tasting, 2. soluble, 3. form crystals
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what are monosaccharides and disaccharides?
a monosaccharide is the simplest form of carbohydrate, it is the monomer, a disaccharide is tow monosaccharides joined together
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what is the most common form of monosaccharide, what is its molecular formula, why is it called what its called and give e.g.s
a hexose sugar, it s called this because it has 6 carbons, its molecular formula is C6H12O6 and e.g. glucose or fructose
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what is the difference between alpha glucose and beta glucose?
in alpha glucose the OH at the fourth carbon is below the plane but in beta glucose the OH is above the plane, this gives rise to different shapes.
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how are disaccharides formed and broken and give one e.g?
they are formed by condensation reaction and broken by hydrolysis reaction. e.g. maltose
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what i the name of the bon between two monomers?
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what is a polysaccharide what are 3 examples.
this more than 2 monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds e.g. starch, glycogen and cellulose.
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what occurs when the bonds of glucose molecules are broken and what is this process called.
this is called respiration and hen glucose is broken down into smaller molecules this process releases energy which can then be used to produce ATP
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how is the structure of glucose related to its function?
its structure causes it to be soluble - it is easily transported, it also has many bond that contain a lot of energy so when they are broken they release a lot of energy.
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which form of glucose is used in respiration and why?
alpha glucose because due to the different structure of beta glucose plant and animal enzymes can't break it down.
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is amylose soluble?
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what is the structure of cellulose?
if is made of beta glucose with 1,4 glycosidic bonds only, the molecules are held together by H bonds so they form fibres called microfibrils, this in turn are held to ether by more H bonds forming macrofibrils.
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what is the function of the cells wall and give 3 ways in which its function is aided by its structure.
it surrounds the cell giving strength to each cells and so support to the whole plant: arrangement of macro fibrils allows 1. water to move through cell wall, 2. determines how the cells will grow/shape, 3. prevents cell bursting from turgidity
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what key phrase describes why cellulose is a good structural molecule?
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what are lipids?
a diverse group of chemicals that dissolve in organic solvents such as alcohol but not in water.
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give the 6 functions of lipids
1. energy source, 2. energy storage, 3. make up all biological membranes, 4. insulation - heat and electrical (e.g. blubber), 5. protection (e.g. waxy cuticle), 6. some hormones e.g. steroid hormones.
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give a similarity between fatty acids and amino acids
in both of these types there are certs acids that animals cannot manufacture from the raw materials in their diet, these are called essential fatty/amino acids and must be obtained complete from parts of the diet.
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what are lipids made from and what are most lipids?
they are made from fatty acids and Glycerol and most are triglycerides
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why are triglycerides suitable for their functions in living organisms?
they are suitable for long term energy storage because they contain twice the energy/unit of mass than carbohydrates and can be stored in large quantities away from the metabolically active cytoplasm.
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why do unsaturated fats tend to be liquid at room temp?
double bonds change the shape of the hydrocarbon chain which makes the molecules push apart becoming more fluid
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what bond is formed as a result of the condensation reaction between the glycerol and fatty acid and what kind of bond is it?
this is an ester bind, it is a covalent bond
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why is a triglyceride insoluble in water and what is another word for this?
hydrophobic - this is because the shared electrons are shared evenly between the triglycerides and the fatty acids so the molecules is not polar and therefore H bond can't easily from with water molecules.
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how is it beneficial?
they can be stored in a compact way that does no affect the water potential of the cell
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what is the difference between a phospholipid and a triglyceride?
with a phospholipid, rather than the third fatty acid being added to the glycerol, a phosphate group is added to the 3rd OH group of the glycerol
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how does this bond form?
condensation reaction.
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are the fatty acids in phospholipids saturated or unsaturated and why? give one example
both so that the fluidity of the membrane can be controlled e.g. in colder temperatures they are mostly unsaturated to maintain fluidity despite the low temps.
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where are phospholipids found and why?
in membranes because their unique hydrophilic/phobic properties come into use
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describe a test for reducing sugars
add benedicts solution, gently shake, heat for 5 mins at 75oC, if present brick red colour seen
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describe a test for non reducing sugars
add hydraulic acid, heat for 5 mins, neutralise with sodium hydrogencarbonate and repeat benedicts.
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describe a test for starch
add iodine - if starch goes blue/blakc
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describe a test for lipids
add ethanol, vigorously shake and leave to settle, decant top layer into cold water - if lipid goes milky
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what elements are found in carbohydrates?


carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Card 3


what are the properties common to all monosaccharides ad disaccharides?


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Card 4


what are monosaccharides and disaccharides?


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Card 5


what is the most common form of monosaccharide, what is its molecular formula, why is it called what its called and give e.g.s


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