what are monosaccharides?
simple sub-unit carbohydrates
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what do they include?
glucose, fructose, galactose
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what are all of these?
-reducing sugars. -sweet. -water soluble. -white, crystalline solids at room temperature.
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what are disaccharides?
two monosaccharides combined by a condensation reaction
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what sugars do they include?
sucrose, lactose, maltose
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what is maltose broken down from?
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what does it breakdown to?
glucose and glucose
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what does sucrose break down to?
glucose and fructose
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what is lactose broken down to?
glucose and galactose
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what bond is formed?
a glycosidic bond
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what happens when water is added?
the glycosidic bond is broken by hydrolysis
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what are polysaccharides?
many monosaccharides joined in a chain by glycosidic bonds
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what do they include?
starch, glycogen, cellulose
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what are all of there?
-non reducing sugars. -water soluble. -white solids at room temp. -not sweet.
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what is starch made up of?
amylose and amylopectin
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describe the appearance of amylose.
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describe the appearance of amylopectin.
helical and slightly branched
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how does it form?
from a condensation reaction between lots of glucoses
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describe the test for starch.
put test solution in spotting tile > add iodine > goes blue/black if starch is present
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what is the test for reducing sugars?
Benedict's test
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describe the test.
add Benedict's solution to the test solution > heat in 80c water bath > goes brick red if reducing sugar is present
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what are standard solutions?
solutions of know concs, you note down results and then carry out the test on solutions of unknown conc then obtain results to obtain conc.
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what does the acid hydrolysis test test for?
non-reducing sugars
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what do you do after you have carried out the test?
the Benedict's test
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describe the process.
do Benedict's test > add HCl to test solution > boil in water bath over bunsen burner for 5 mins > cool and add sodium hydrogen carbonate to neutralise > repeat B's test
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what should the results be?
the second Benedict's test should be positive if the carbohydrate is a reducing sugar
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Card 2


what do they include?


glucose, fructose, galactose

Card 3


what are all of these?


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Card 4


what are disaccharides?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what sugars do they include?


Preview of the front of card 5
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